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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Can I replace my VO2 max equipment with MOXY.
 Answer I like to give no, not at all you complement this two and you are a big step forward to understand the  trend in VO2 max.
1. VO2 max = CO x ( a-v ) O2 diff.
 We all use that daily but :
 We never measure it. we measure VO2  as a result of the formula.
 So we have no clue , whether it is the CO or the a-v , who changes the VO2 result. We not even know  who may use the O2.
 Now with using a VO2 equipment and you add a moxy to the main working body ares like leg and arm and depending on the sport core you actually see where O2 trends happend.
. Than we use Physio flow to see the CO  cardiac out put as a result of HR x SV ( stroke volume ) and we have the first part of the formula covered. Than we look at the trend in  O2  ( MOXY  /NIRS ) and where it takes place and see where we change  O2 trends plus we look at the respiratory changes with VO2 ( VE = RF x TV ) and now we can understand , deadening on trends in hypo or hypercapnia ,why we see increase or decrease in SmO2  as well s  trends in tHb as an indirect indicator of blood volume.
 This will let understand why respiration has a direct influence on oxygenation and deoxygenation Here  a nice  part to  see what I mean :

Muscle O2 transport and O2 dependent control of metabolism.


Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0623.


Whether maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during exercise in healthy subjects reflects limitation of the supply of oxygen to muscle mitochondria or an inability to use oxygen beyond some biochemical limit remains debated. This paper summarizes evidence for the hypothesis that VO2max is limited by O2 supply. How the many steps in the pathway for oxygen interact to determine maximum oxygen supply is analyzed, resulting in a mathematical model of predictive value. A major component of this model is the diffusional transport of oxygen out of the muscle microcirculation. The proportionality between VO2max and the capillary to mitochondrion partial pressure gradient (as FIO2 is altered) supports this hypothesis, but does not exclude the existence of convective heterogeneity of blood flow as a factor contributing to the limitation of VO2max. Although there is no direct method for measuring convective heterogeneity, altering hemoglobin P50 permits distinguishing diffusive from convective elements in limiting VO2max, and both the underlying theory and the results are summarized herein. Our conclusion is that VO2max in health appears limited by the supply of oxygen to the mitochondria, which in turn, depends upon the integrated interaction among all of the diffusive and convective steps in the oxygen pathway between the environment and the mitochondria.

Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Do I use VO2 max ?   was  a common questions in a few  emails I received after the above post. Well  I will give a short answer with the risk of stepping into a bee nest.
 No  not at all.
 Since the late 1980 I never used even close VO2 max test for any ideas for training information's.
Main reason is, that I rarely and possibly never  had a test, where I had the so called famous VO2 max plateau at all.
I had VO2 max tested  current values, but if you take some manipulative steps at the stage, where you think you see VO2 max you will be able to change this.
Why do I have a VO2 max testing equipment?
 Because  I love the different information's I can retrieve and they help me to understand the possibility, that there is not one single peripheral reason for a VO2 max plateau at a current test but that there must be some incredible  feedback information's going from the brain to the periphery and back and depending on the situation , limitations can be overcome by compensations   and  other options.It is unlikely the VO2 max who predicts a performance  as much rather the current performance who asks for a certain VO2.

 It is the famous ECGM we  love to use to explain some ideas, which we never can explain with current  ideas. That was the reason why we proclaimed in the late 1980 the LBP ( Lactate balance point) as we had some major issue with a lactate threshold or an  anaerobic threshold.
 Great work from much bigger brains  like Brooks/ Gladden. Noakes , Dempsey,to name some of my favorite thinkers, supported our practical applications, that there must be a homeostasis situation which can not be bound on one single level or single muscle cell but has to be interlinked with  all the different systems through out the body.
 So   the heart is interlinked with respiration   and the respiration interlinks with oxygenation and oxygenation interlinks  with recruitment pattern  and all the possible super interesting connections. So when we go back to the original question:
 If  and just IF there is no such thing like a VO2 max, than we have the disaster that  thousands of so called intelligent papers written to get some letters in front of your name ,have to be  reviewed, as it just may be, that some of this  conclusions may fit a  theory, which may not be able to stay  upright against  critical scrutiny.
 We may suddenly have to replace  a calculator  and % ideas for training intensities with physiological and possibly psychological  information , to have an individual training idea going.
 We have some   very interesting test with MOXY on the ice, where we can see, that the " fatigue " may be controlled much more by current motivation and ability to overcome some  discomfort , if I can motivate with some  numbers the athlete to push  harder.
 We have athletes they stop, once they reach SmO2 individual lowest current level and others they can stay  on a flat  stretch with SmO2   and we term this section Hypoxia  rather than anaerobic, as there seem to be still great SmO2 values and therefor a minimal pO2  and a minimal ATP concentration seems to be secured  most likely controlled over a feedback loop to and from the brain.
 The interesting part we discussed already  many years back, when we started to use the NIRS idea, is the fact, that in an endurance  test, where we would  argue, that O2 is the limitation, the SmO2 values  drop not even close  as low as in an " anerobic " all out test, where we would argue, we would  use " anerobic energy supply.
 In many all out tests  we did and we have hundreds ,the SmO2  resp the drop in O2 is always without any exeption lower than in any endurance test.
What does that mean.?
 1. We possibly get much more information about the "aerobic"  performance, we call it deoxygenation ability" from a short all out interval test than from a VO2 max test.
 . Why do we have an endurance test IPAHD.
 Exactly because we are not interested in VO2 max but rather in the interaction of the different homeostasis disruption in different physiological systems.
 By giving the body enough time to react and act 5/1/5 we can see, what systems can still increase performance, what system  start to reach an optimal "plateau " and what system may in fact start to loose performance.
 By using the VO2 information like RF, TV, VE, VO2/HR  VO2/RF FeO2 % SpO2  we gather a very nice information about the respiratory trends.
 When we add Physio flow and have CO , SV. HR, LVET CCT and even MVO2 we have a second  information form another system.
 Now if ( IF) we  believe, that there may be a regulation from a higher center, than the  least dangerous "body system"  in connection with survival . will start to loose ( fatigue) performance to d a reduce O2 needs so O2 supply is saved to much more important systems like brain, heart respiration. This can be achieved over feedback loops in reducing   motor unit recruitment or vasoconstriction ( Metaboreflex) . This reaction could show up with a direct informant  at the local muscle area.
This direct informant is MOXY ( NIRS ) and when combining SmO2 values and tHb trends  and using some of the above information ,we can see, where the origin of the possible limitation was or is and therefor can try to focus workouts towards this specific area with many new forms of workouts.
 Here one simple summary of our idea. In a very basic PP we use in our discussions.  Regular readers on this forum will  be able to  put their own words into the  PP. Run it as a PP as it will develop in front of your eyes and you can discuss  it as an ongoing slide information.  Feed backs and critics are always welcome.

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