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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Here is a nice  article  and   when you look at the  time, where it   was published  than you can see  how  tradition  is hard  to overcome.
 Over the last  week we    did some  info  and presentation on the USA  east coast  and  we had  some incredible open minded people  there.
 Nevertheless  many great coaches  and center  really still  stick to  our  traditional ideas  now soon 100 years old.
  Here  to enjoy.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2003 Mar;43(1):1-13.

The use of near infrared spectroscopy in sports medicine.

Author information

  • 1Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.


In the last 15 years the study of the human muscle energetics in sports medicine underwent a radical change thanks to the progressive introduction of non-invasive techniques, including near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (NIRS). NIR light (700-1000 nm) penetrates skin, subcutaneous fat and underlying muscle, and is either absorbed (by oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin) or scattered within the tissue. NIRS is a non-invasive and relatively low cost optical technique that is becoming a widely used instrument for measuring muscle O(2) saturation and changes in haemoglobin volume. Muscle O(2) saturation represents a dynamic balance between O(2) supply and O(2) consumption in the small vessels such as the capillary, arteriolar and venular bed. NIRS offers the advantage of being less restrictive than (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy with regard to muscle performance and more comfortable and suitable for the monitoring, with high temporal resolution (up to 10 Hz), of multiple muscle groups. The aim of this review is to summarise the NIRS instrumentation and the measurable parameters, the role of NIRS in muscle exercise physiology, and the applications in sports medicine. The advantages and the problems of NIRS measurements, in resting and exercising skeletal muscles, are reported. The results of several studies suggest that NIRS is a powerful tool for being applied successfully in sports medicine. NIRS can objectively evaluate muscle oxidative metabolism in athletes and its modifications following potential therapeutic strategies and specific training programs.

What we  always see  during our presentation, that  once people  see  and use  MOXY they are surprised  how easy  it is to look at the datas   and to understand what they often show.

What  they as well very  fast understand  is the principle of delivery  and utilization.
  Who delivers  and why is delivery  good  or  not sufficient  and  why do we see  changes in utilization despite  good delivery.
  The other section is the need  for  more in depth schooling on the baseline of MOXY  . This is what we  will do in the comming month.  We  look  for  areas, where we find  coaches  and  centers  to establish a    regular  seminar schedule  for new   MOXY useres  and to show  some very practical application.
 If you are interested  to be one of the future  MOXY  ealers  and or  centers  please  contact    or  if you are  form the USA  and or Canada.


Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Despite an ongoing discussion in the question of respiration as a possible limitation of performance, reality   shows  and with it the use  of MOXY /NIRS,  that respiration  has a direct influence of  O2  bio availability.
 For all current MOXY user.
 Mount  one MOXY on a leg  and one on   an arm.
  Make biceps  curls  and see SmO2  reaction in the arm, Make  quadriceps  activity and see  SmO2  reaction in the leg.  Both local feedback's.
 Now   create a hypocapnic  situation  and look at SmO2 trend  and tHb trend  and you have a systematic reaction in SmO2 as a  shift in O2  Diss curve.
 . Now create a hypercapnic situation  and look the systemic  reaction.
   Now start thinking how  hypo ventilation  at the end of a  400 m run creates  the  pictures  we see.    Now  go back to  work  done in the late  1970  with pH  and so on  and you understand  that as long we  can balance H +  we can increase  lactate in the system  as one is a buffer  the other is a limiter of  ATP  splitting.
  Here a nice paper  as well in that direction.

Related trends in locomotor and respiratory muscle oxygenation during exercise.

Legrand R1Marles APrieur FLazzari SBlondel NMucci P.

Author information

ยท         1Laboratory of Human Movement Studies, Faculty of Sports Sciences and Physical Education, Lille University, Lille, France.



We investigated the potential effect of respiratory muscle work on leg muscle oxygenation without artificial intervention in non-endurance-trained young subjects and searched for the range of intensity when this effect could occur.


We simultaneously monitored accessory respiratory and leg muscle oxygenation patterns with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in 15 healthy young men performing maximal incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer. Pulmonary gas exchange was measured. The respiratory compensation point (RCP) was determined. Oxygenation (RMO2) and blood volume (RMBV) of the serratus anterior (accessory respiratory muscle) and of the vastus lateralis (LegO2 and LegBV) were monitored with NIRS. The breakdown point of accessory respiratory muscle oxygenation (BPRMO2) and the accelerated (BP1LegO2) and attenuated fall (BP2LegO2) in leg muscle oxygenation were detected.


BPRMO2 occurred at approximately 85% .VO2max and was related to RCP (r = 0.88, P < 0.001). BP2LegO2 appeared at approximately 83% .VO2max and was related to RCP (r = 0.57, P < 0.05) and with BPRMO2 (r = 0.64, P = 0.01). From BP2LegO2 to maximal exercise, LegBV was significantly reduced (P < 0.05).


In active subjects exercising at heavy exercise intensities, we observed that the appearance of the accelerated drop in accessory respiratory muscle oxygenation-associated with high ventilatory level-was related with the attenuated fall in leg muscle oxygenation detected with near-infrared spectroscopy. This suggests that the high oxygen requirement of respiratory muscle leads to limited oxygen use by locomotor muscles as demonstrated in endurance-trained subjects. The phenomenon observed was associated with reduced leg blood volume, supporting the occurrence of leg vasoconstriction. These events appeared not only at maximal exercise

  If you breathe at the end of a  Wingate or  800 m run  or  3  - 4 min all out test  a VE  of 130 - 150 L  you   look like you are out of breath?
  Did you ever asked the question , that when the same person is breathing 150 - 200 L  with a Spiro Tiger  they are not  out of breath after 5 min spiro tiger. Why not. ?

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