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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Nice mail and interesting comments.
1. In speed skating but more in short track speed skating we have the unique situation of a very  strong difference between inner and outer leg. This is reflected  beautifully  with  MOXY ( NIRS) the nice thing is, that we actually can use this sport to show, how different the oxygenation and deoxygenation really is, when we train or use  the body different.
 Here we have basically a live research like we would have  by using twins by having on the same athletes 2 very different oxygenation patterns between left and right leg.
 This is the reason, why we know and can  argue, that we  are able to change oxygenation pattern in on or the other directions to  use O2 different.. The question  in this mail was.
  a) the ipahd  the  step test with 5 min steps  and or the 5/1/5  seems easy to do. Main problem indoors is the speed as GPS often do not work
 So how do we find the right speed, when we do a step test indoors.
  Here  the answer. Use the pacer program and flag it out  as discussed on your private mail back.
 for the rest of the speed skate coaches enjoying our challenges. here the pacer  connection

b)  what is the protocol for the IPAHR in speed skating and what can I use   for dry-land instead of the  not very effective VO2 max testing .
  Here the 2 protocols for  on ice and dry land speed skating moxy  protocols.
 Connect back and I will sent you the explanation and  more info.

Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Do we dream ?
 was the question . Answer:  sure  ! is that wrong ?
 Here another group  with the same dream to follow.

Oxygen Saturation in Right and Left Vastus Lateralis During Split Squat Exercise in Speed Skaters

Edlbeck, B P; Dorman, J C; Malek, D M; Snyder, A C



Many athletes use resistance training to enhance muscular strength and endurance, with resistance determined as a percentage of a repetition maximum. However, the stress placed on the muscles is rarely determined. During a split squat exercise, it is essential to distribute weight equally in both legs to insure equal development. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows for non-invasive examination of muscle oxygenation during exercise. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the right and left leg muscle oxygen usage during a typical split squat exercise workout to assess whether proper muscle emphasis could be determined. We hypothesized that muscle oxygen usage would be tractable by NIRS during resistance training exercise and that with elite athletes muscle oxygen usage would be similar in both legs during the split squat exercise. METHODS: Six (5 male and 1 female) National and International caliber speed skaters (aged 24 +/- 6 yrs) were monitored while performing a split squat training session. The procedure consisted of three sets of fifteen repetitions. A set consisted of fifteen repetitions with both the left and right legs forward. After each leg and between sets the athletes had a one minute rest period. The exercise protocol used was similar to the athletes' regular workout. Percent oxygen saturation (StO2) of the right and left vastus lateralis muscles was measured continuously throughout the individual's exercise. RESULTS: The results showed a large variation between subjects. Resting StO2 ranged from 96-53%, while the exercising StO2 ranged from 68-0%. With the left leg forward there was a large difference between subjects on which leg the emphasis was placed. Two placed greater emphasis on the left leg, three on the right leg and one subject put equal emphasis on both. When the right leg was forward, all subjects but one placed the emphasis on that right leg; the one placed greater emphasis on the left leg. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that StO2 should be able to be used as an indicator of leg preference during the performance of a split squat training session. However, further research is needed on the usage of StO2 to monitor muscle utilization during resistance exercise. PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The use of muscle oxygenation to determine muscle usage during exercises such as the split squat has the potential to assist coaches and athletes to correctly critique and modify activity during a training session to maximize adaptations, especially at the elite level.

(C) 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association

Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Here a short add on the dreaming idea.
 We  like to dream public-ally versus some  not as public dreaming.
 Why ?
 We like to share our dreams.
 Here an example from a great dream  but less public.
 The difference to this great dream is, that we offer with MOXY now reality instead of dreams and we test daily ideas like CO  SV and respiration and combine it with NIRS. The result. we now can use in many cases just  a Garmin FR70 and a MOXY and  the client who just now works out in front of my computer ( Anna Dora ) can see, whether she challenges her leg ( Post ACL PCL repair sufficient enough to be worth while to go through all this work for an optimal result. The great part is, super motivated to try one more set and see how SmO2 reacts.. Here the less  public dreaming group somewhat close to what we do in daily applications. 

Evidence for restricted muscle blood flow during speed skating.

Foster C, Rundell KW, Snyder AC, Stray-Gundersen J, Kemkers G, Thometz N, Broker J, Knapp E.


University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse, 54601, USA.



We have previously hypothesized restricted muscle blood flow during speed skating, secondary to the high intramuscular forces intrinsic to the unique posture assumed by speed skaters and to the prolonged duty cycle of the skating stroke.


To test this hypothesis, we studied speed skaters (N = 10) during submaximal and maximal cycling and in-line skating, in both low (knee angle = 107 degrees) and high (knee angle = 112 degrees) skating positions (CE vs SkL vs SkH). Supportive experiments evaluated muscle desaturation and lactate accumulation during on-ice speed skating and muscle desaturation during static exercise at different joint positions.


Consistent with the hypothesis were reductions during skating in VO2peak (4.28 vs 3.83 vs 4.26 L x min(-1)), the VO2 at 4 mmol x L(-1) blood lactate (3.38 vs 1.93 vs 3.31 L x min(-1)), and cardiac output during maximal exercise (33.2 vs 25.3 vs 25.6 L x min(-1)). The reduction in maximal cardiac output was not attributable to differences in HRmax (197 vs 192 vs 193 b x min(-1)) but to a reduction in SVmax (172 vs 135 vs 134 mL x beat(-1)). The reduction in SV appeared to be related to an increased calculated systemic vascular resistance (354 vs 483 vs 453 dynes x s(-1) x cm(-1)). During maximal skating there was also a greater % O2 desaturation of the vastus lateralis based on near infrared spectrophotometry (50.3 vs 74.9 vs 60.4% of maximal desaturation during cuff ischemia). The results were supported by greater desaturation with smaller knee angles during static exercise and by greater desaturation and accelerated blood lactate accumulation during on-ice speed skating in the low vs high position. The results of this study support the hypothesis that physiological responses during speed skating are dominated by restriction of blood flow, attributable either to high intramuscular forces, the long duty cycle of the skating stroke, or both.



[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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