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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Here a nice study from Andri's former university.
116 subjects own kitchen  will produce a publication.
We have   hundreds of cases but what we like to have is outside our own kitchen  data collection so it is  not biased.  Nevertheless this is an interesting case explanation.

Muscle deoxygenation of upper-limb muscles during progressive arm-cranking exercise.

Lusina SJ, Warburton DE, Hatfield NG, Sheel AW.


School of Human Kinetics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.


The purpose of this study was to determine which upper-limb muscle exhibits the greatest change in muscle deoxygenation during arm-cranking exercise (ACE). We hypothesized that the biceps brachii (BB) would show the greatest change in muscle deoxygenation during progressive ACE to exhaustion relative to triceps brachii (TR), brachioradialis (BR), and anterior deltoid (AD). Healthy young men (n = 11; age = 27 +/- 1 y; mean +/- SEM) performed an incremental ACE test to exhaustion. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to monitor the relative concentration changes in oxy- (O2Hb), deoxy- (HHb), and total hemoglobin (Hbtot), as well as tissue oxygenation index (TOI) in each of the 4 muscles. During submaximal arm exercise, we found that changes to NIRS-derived measurements were not different between the 4 muscles studied (p > 0.05). At maximal exercise HHb was significantly higher in the BB compared with AD (p < 0.05). Relative to the other 3 muscles, BB exhibited the greatest decrease in O2Hb and TOI (p < 0.05). Our investigation provides two new and important findings: (i) during submaximal ACE the BB, TR, BR, and AD exhibit similar changes in muscle deoxygenation and (ii) during maximal ACE the BB exhibits the greatest change in intramuscular O2 status.

Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
And here another afternoon fun  game and very nice to help us to show, that like in VO2 max test it is muscle specific  and even intramuscular specific . So when using MOXY as a workout bio feedback it is important to use it  at the muscles you had in on as you got your assessment.
Even than you will learn how you have to calibrate  yourself  ( warm up to use a bad term )  so you can use the actual SmO2 numbers  as a feedback.
 This Is very crucial when we look late rin planning interval or strength workouts.
 Her to have fun
 6 case studies  in one  publication.

The relationship between muscle deoxygenation and activation in different muscles of the quadriceps during cycle ramp exercise

1.   Lisa M. K. Chin1,2,

2.   John M. Kowalchuk3,

3.   Thomas J. Barstow4,

4.   Narihiko Kondo5,

5.   Tatsuro Amano5,

6.   Tomoyuki Shiojiri6, and

7.   Shunsaku Koga1

+ Author Affiliations

1.    1Applied Physiology Laboratory, Kobe Design University, Kobe, Japan;

2.    2Rehabilitation Medicine Department, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland;

3.    3School of Kinesiology and Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada;

4.    4Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas;

5.    5Faculty of Human Development, University of Kobe, Kobe, Japan; and

6.    6Laboratory of Exercise and Sports Science, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan

1.    Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: S. Koga, Applied Physiology Laboratory, Kobe Design Univ., 8-1-1 Gakuennishi-machi, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2196, Japan (e-mail:

       Submitted 15 October 2010.

       Accepted 25 July 2011.


The relationship between muscle deoxygenation and activation was examined in three different muscles of the quadriceps during cycling ramp exercise. Seven young male adults (24 ± 3 yr; mean ± SD) pedaled at 60 rpm to exhaustion, with a work rate (WR) increase of 20 W/min. Pulmonary oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath, while muscle deoxygenation (HHb) and activity were measured by time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and surface electromyography (EMG), respectively, at the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus medialis (VM). Muscle deoxygenation was corrected for adipose tissue thickness and normalized to the amplitude of the HHb response, while EMG signals were integrated (iEMG) and normalized to the maximum iEMG determined from maximal voluntary contractions. Muscle deoxygenation and activation were then plotted as a percentage of maximal work rate (%WRmax). The HHb response for all three muscle groups was fitted by a sigmoid function, which was determined as the best fitting model. The c/d parameter for the sigmoid fit (representing the %WRmax at 50% of the total amplitude of the HHb response) was similar between VL (47 ± 12% WRmax) and VM (43 ± 11% WRmax), yet greater (P < 0.05) for RF (65 ± 13% WRmax), demonstrating a “right shift” of the HHb response compared with VL and VM. The iEMG also showed that muscle activation of the RF muscle was lower (P < 0.05) compared with VL and VM throughout the majority of the ramp exercise, which may explain the different HHb response in RF. Therefore, these data suggest that the sigmoid function can be used to model the HHb response in different muscles of the quadriceps; however, simultaneous measures of muscle activation are also needed for the HHb response to be properly interpreted during cycle ramp exercise.



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