Fortiori Design LLC
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Here a great email from many great emails I start to receive from MOXY users start to think outside the classical exercise physiological fields of % and LT but start to look at the overall picture of performance and what may limit or compensate performance .
Juerg, hi, g’morning. RE: short abstract below, is it likely MOXY would or would not show both consequences of RM fatigue described, in concurrent steps (example: vasoconstriction 4th 5 min step PLUS reduced motor output—if client pushes into 5th 5 min steps ??? If yes, and MOXY is the only info measured, we would see first a critical decreasing tHb followed (next step) with a sharp increase of tHb? Exercise-induced respiratory muscle fatigue: implications for performance. Abstract
It is commonly held that the respiratory system has ample capacity relative to the demand for maximal O(2) and CO(2) transport in healthy humans exercising near sea level. However, this situation may not apply during heavy-intensity, sustained exercise where exercise may encroach on the capacity of the respiratory system. Nerve stimulation techniques have provided objective evidence that the diaphragm and abdominal muscles are susceptible to fatigue with heavy, sustained exercise. The fatigue appears to be due to elevated levels of respiratory muscle work combined with an increased competition for blood flow with limb locomotor muscles. When respiratory muscles are prefatigued using voluntary respiratory maneuvers, time to exhaustion during subsequent exercise is decreased. Partially unloading the respiratory muscles during heavy exercise using low-density gas mixtures or mechanical ventilation can prevent exercise-induced diaphragm fatigue and increase exercise time to exhaustion. Collectively, these findings suggest that respiratory muscle fatigue may be involved in limiting exercise tolerance or that other factors, including alterations in the sensation of dyspnea or mechanical load, may be important.
The major consequence of respiratory muscle fatigue is an increased sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow to working skeletal muscle through a respiratory muscle metaboreflex, thereby reducing limb blood flow and increasing the severity of exercise-induced locomotor muscle fatigue. An increase in limb locomotor muscle fatigue may play a pivotal role in determining exercise tolerance through a direct effect on muscle force output and a feedback effect on effort perception, causing reduced motor output to the working limb muscles. exceptionallyspan style="display: inline;">18096752 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free full text Short thoughts : This above explained reactions are exactly why we like some and why we look at trends very different and very much from a physiological point of view , rather than from a performance point of view.. We have the luxury, that we have access to athletes which are exceptiobnally well trained on their respiratory systems with years of Spiro Tiger training. So we have some access to people, who can use the respiration to manipulate all kinds of reactions , so we can study the different options we may or could see.. Here not valued, but as soem trends you can expect. a) The main trigger to increase respiratory drive is CO2 levels ( Not only but none of the main drives). The respiration, like the cardiac system , has different options to deal with the demand of a diaphratripple;( volume.) You can breathe deeper or faster, you can combine both, you can change location of air movement, ( apical or more abdominal ) You can change timing ( ratio ) of inspiration versus expiration and much more. The interesting part is , that the majority of coaches out there not even closely accept the fact, that respiration involves in heavy load up to 60 % of the total muscle mass and as such has a fundamental influence on performance. The fact, that the diaphragm is the first muscle in action in any motion, whether your throw a ball of jump up , as it is the main core muscle, is often completely overlooked. The fact the stopping breathing ( hold breath ) during a complex motion like a triple jump in figure skating or a jump in arial or moguls ,will have an immediate impact on performance and this is well known, but may take some time to be accepted. Equipments we use since many years ( Bio harness for RF and RF pattern, as well as acceleration and so on ) will be more and more common and other companies will copy this idea, come out as the big news and depending who is behind will get more or less traction in the coaching community. The fact is, that respiration information ( pattern and more ) has to be combined with O2 disscurve shift and O2 disscurve shift has to be combined with information like NIRS ( MOXY ). This will as well demystify the idea of RER and RQ as the time lag of Gas exchange tested at the mouth and the actual concentration at the place of production can be huge and can make a very wrong picture.. MOXY info: Increase in CO2 will allow a better O2 utilization and SmO2 will drop. Increase in CO2 is a potent Vasodilatator in the circulatory sysrem in the working muscels ( and brain ) and as such we will see an increase in tHb. Under heavy load in sports where athletes can use a lot of extremity muscels to ask for O2, the combination of this O2 demand by working muscles , paired with the extrem increased workload and therefor O2 demand by the respiratory muscels can create the metaboreflex and as such the priority is shifted to "survival' which mans respiration will overrrule any other demand of O2 from extremity. MOXY reaction. Vasoconstriction and tHb drop but therefor as well still increase in H + and CO2 and SmO2 will drop as well. To have an optimal information , that's where the respiration information from VO2 equipment comes in. VE ( RF / TV ) VO2/RF,EtCO2 trend. Now we can see, how the respiration tries to react. Is it limitation or is it kicking in to try to compensate. In many cases, where it is a compensator we see tHb going up and SmO2 going down and when we stop muscular activity we release muscular tension and see an immediate incredible increase in tHb and SmO2 When it is a metaboreflex reaction we get a vasoconstriction short tHb drop but followed due to the heavy load with a veneous occlusion trend so tHb goes up as well. and SmO2 drops as well. So under load you will not see a real difference on that trend. But there are some clear indication at the moment we interrupt the load and than go back to the same load. ( That is the reason for 5/1/5 ) Here to get you tinking. ( remember the lelevator pitch ) do you like to use a calculator or do you like to use your brain. Here the direction: Stronge respiration as a compensator. You have increasedcompression due to increased muscle tension ( That would cause what kind of tHb reaction ? Than you add a very potent CO2 level ( tHb reaction ? Than you add survival priority so who may " win " of the 2 above reactions. Therefor you may see tHb ???? doing what. . Now you stop suddently so you release immediatly , what influence on tHb . This creates what tHb reaction as you now got rid of one tHb influence but you still have the other tHb influence ??? 2 . case Metaboreflex. tHb is doing what due to metaboreflex ?. . Now you add muscle tension due to load which would add to tHb reaction ??? Now you reach a critical pressure and blood vessel diameter and you may cause What ??? Now you have on the screen the same tHb and SmO2 trend as above. BUT you stop the muscle influence part in both. . So how will tHb react in the first case and how in the second case..? Small help in att pic Last is an incredible nice summary of muscle reactions . As well as what may cause performance loss( Fatigue ) The regular reader, who may have tossed his calculator far away already , not even needs anymore to know what was done in this assessment, as he can actually see this athlete work out and can explain what is going on. Here your weekend fun . Attached Images