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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
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Posts: 1,530
 #1 
Here a  great  email  from many great emails  I start to receive   from MOXY users  start to  think outside the classical   exercise physiological  fields  of  %  and    LT  but  start to look at the overall picture  of   performance  and what may limit or compensate  performance  .

Juerg, hi, g’morning. RE: short abstract below, is it likely MOXY would or would not show both consequences of RM fatigue described, in concurrent steps (example: vasoconstriction 4th 5 min step PLUS reduced motor output—if client pushes into 5th 5 min steps ??? If yes, and MOXY is the only info measured, we would see first a critical decreasing tHb followed (next step) with a sharp increase of tHb?
 
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008 Mar;104(3):879-88. Epub 2007 Dec 20.
Exercise-induced respiratory muscle fatigue: implications for performance.
Abstract
It is commonly held that the respiratory system has ample capacity relative to the demand for maximal O(2) and CO(2) transport in healthy humans exercising near sea level. However, this situation may not apply during heavy-intensity, sustained exercise where exercise may encroach on the capacity of the respiratory system. Nerve stimulation techniques have provided objective evidence that the diaphragm and abdominal muscles are susceptible to fatigue with heavy, sustained exercise. The fatigue appears to be due to elevated levels of respiratory muscle work combined with an increased competition for blood flow with limb locomotor muscles. When respiratory muscles are prefatigued using voluntary respiratory maneuvers, time to exhaustion during subsequent exercise is decreased. Partially unloading the respiratory muscles during heavy exercise using low-density gas mixtures or mechanical ventilation can prevent exercise-induced diaphragm fatigue and increase exercise time to exhaustion. Collectively, these findings suggest that respiratory muscle fatigue may be involved in limiting exercise tolerance or that other factors, including alterations in the sensation of dyspnea or mechanical load, may be important. The major consequence of respiratory muscle fatigue is an increased sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow to working skeletal muscle through a respiratory muscle metaboreflex, thereby reducing limb blood flow and increasing the severity of exercise-induced locomotor muscle fatigue. An increase in limb locomotor muscle fatigue may play a pivotal role in determining exercise tolerance through a direct effect on muscle force output and a feedback effect on effort perception, causing reduced motor output to the working limb muscles.
exceptionallyspan style="display: inline;">18096752 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free full text
 
 
Short  thoughts  :  This  above  explained reactions  are exactly  why  we  like  some  and  why we look  at  trends very different  and  very much  from a  physiological point of view , rather than from a performance point of view..
  We  have the luxury, that we   have access to  athletes which are exceptiobnally  well trained  on their respiratory systems  with  years of Spiro Tiger training.
 So we  have  some  access  to  people, who  can use  the respiration to manipulate  all kinds of reactions , so we  can study the different options  we may  or could see..
 Here  not valued,  but as  soem  trends  you can expect.
 a) The main  trigger  to increase  respiratory drive is CO2 levels  (  Not only but  none of the main drives).
 The   respiration, like the cardiac system , has different options  to deal with the demand of a diaphratripple;( volume.)
  You can breathe deeper   or  faster, you can  combine  both, you can change  location of  air movement,  ( apical  or   more abdominal ) You can change timing  ( ratio )  of inspiration versus  expiration  and much more.
 The interesting part is , that the majority of  coaches out there  not  even closely accept the   fact, that respiration  involves   in heavy load up to 60 %  of  the total muscle mass  and as  such has a fundamental influence  on performance.
 The  fact, that the diaphragm is the  first   muscle in action in any motion, whether your throw a  ball of  jump  up  , as it is the main core muscle, is  often completely overlooked.
 The fact the stopping  breathing ( hold breath )  during a complex  motion like a triple  jump in figure skating or a  jump in arial  or moguls ,will have an immediate impact on performance and this is well known,  but may take some time  to  be accepted.
  Equipments  we use since many years ( Bio harness  for RF  and RF pattern,  as well as  acceleration  and so on )  will be more and more common  and  other companies  will copy this  idea,   come out  as the big news   and depending who is behind  will get  more or less traction in the coaching community. The fact is, that  respiration information ( pattern  and    more  ) has to be combined  with O2  disscurve shift  and O2  disscurve shift has to be combined  with information  like  NIRS  ( MOXY ).
 This will  as well demystify the idea of RER  and RQ  as the time lag of  Gas exchange  tested  at the mouth  and the actual   concentration  at the place of  production  can  be  huge  and can make a very  wrong picture..
 
 MOXY info:
 Increase in CO2  will allow a better  O2  utilization and SmO2    will drop.

Increase in CO2 is a potent  Vasodilatator in the  circulatory sysrem in the  working muscels (  and brain )  and as such  we will see an increase in tHb.

Under heavy load in sports where  athletes  can  use a lot of extremity muscels  to  ask for O2, the combination of  this  O2  demand  by working  muscles , paired  with the extrem  increased    workload  and therefor  O2  demand  by the    respiratory   muscels can  create   the metaboreflex and as such the  priority  is shifted  to "survival'  which mans  respiration  will overrrule  any other  demand of O2  from extremity.  
MOXY reaction.
  Vasoconstriction and tHb  drop but therefor as well still increase in H +    and CO2  and SmO2  will drop as well.
  To have an optimal  information , that's where  the  respiration information   from VO2  equipment comes in.  VE  (  RF  / TV )  VO2/RF,EtCO2   trend.
 Now we  can see, how the respiration  tries  to react.  Is it limitation or is it  kicking in to try to compensate.
  In many cases, where  it is a compensator  we see   tHb  going up  and SmO2  going  down  and when we   stop  muscular  activity  we   release  muscular tension  and see  an immediate  incredible increase  in tHb  and SmO2
  When it is a  metaboreflex reaction we  get a vasoconstriction  short tHb  drop  but followed  due to the heavy load    with a   veneous   occlusion trend  so tHb  goes up as well.  and SmO2  drops as well.
 So under load  you will not see a  real difference  on that trend.
 But there  are  some clear indication  at the moment  we  interrupt the load  and than go back to the same load.  ( That is the reason  for 5/1/5 )   Here  to get you tinking. ( remember the lelevator  pitch )    do you like to use a calculator or do you like to use  your brain.
  Here the  direction:
  Stronge respiration as a compensator.
  You have increasedcompression  due to increased  muscle tension  ( That   would cause  what kind of tHb reaction ? 

 Than you add a very potent  CO2  level  ( tHb  reaction ?
 Than you add  survival  priority  so    who may  " win "  of the 2  above  reactions.
  Therefor  you may see tHb ???? doing what.
.
 Now you stop suddently    so you release immediatly , what    influence   on tHb .  This creates    what tHb reaction  as you now  got  rid of one tHb influence  but you still have the other  tHb influence ???
   2 . case  Metaboreflex.
  tHb is  doing what due to   metaboreflex ?.
.  Now you add muscle tension due to load  which would  add to tHb  reaction ???
  Now you reach a critical  pressure  and  blood vessel diameter  and you may  cause  What ???
  Now you  have  on the screen the same  tHb  and SmO2 trend as  above.
  BUT you stop  the  muscle  influence  part in both.
.  So how will tHb react in the first case  and how in the second  case..?
Small help in  att pic  Last is an incredible nice  summary of  muscle reactions . As well as  what may cause performance loss(  Fatigue )
 The regular reader, who may have  tossed  his calculator  far  away already ,  not even needs  anymore  to know  what was  done in this assessment, as he can  actually see this athlete  work out  and can  explain what is going on.
 Here  your  weekend  fun  .


 

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