Another question I got after " pulling " apart 220 - age and VO2 max prediction and so on.

Here we go.

The writer expresses acceptance, that doing a VO2 max in any person may have some potential risks.

That's' why we use not all out maximal tests but sub maximal test and than predict based on formulas the VO2 max and the maximal HR.

Than we take this prediction and use statistical formulas to give training zoning. "

Absolutely true and nothing to counter here. That's what many centers and coaches will do.

Question back : is it individual and what do you really have on physiological information when you stop somewhere at a critical formula. We than not even have one physiological information to understand. At least when you go all out you have the physiological max values from that particular test on that particular day. The rest is math again.

But here a much better answer from accepted sources.

**CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS**

Based on this review of research and application of HRmax prediction, the following recommendations can be

made;

1. Currently, there is no acceptable method to estimate HRmax.

2. If HRmax needs to be estimated, then population specific formulae should be used. However, the most

accurate general equation is that of Inbar (17) (Table 3); HRmax=205.8-0.685(age). Nevertheless, the error

(Sxy=6.4 b/min) is still unacceptably large.

3. An acceptable prediction error for HRmax for application to estimation of VO2max is <±3 b/min. Thus, for

a person with a HRmax of 200 b/min, error equals ±1.5%. If this precision is not possible, then there is no

justification for using methods of VO2max estimation that rely on HRmax prediction formulae.

*Prediction of Maximal Heart Rate*

8

4. Additional research needs to be performed that develops multivariate regression equations that improve the

accuracy of HRmax prediction for specific populations, and modes of exercise.

5. The use of HRmax is most prevalent in the fitness industry, and the people who work in these facilities

mainly have a terminal undergraduate degree in exercise science or related fields. These students/graduates

need to be better educated in statistics to recognize and understand the concept of prediction error, and the

practical consequences of relying on an equation with a large standard error of estimate (Sxy).

6. Textbooks in exercise physiology and exercise prescription should contain content that is more critical of the

HRmax=220-age or similar formulae. Authors need to stress the mode-specificity of HRmax, provide alternate,

research substantiated formula, and express all content of items 1-5, above. Similarly, academic coverage of

HRmax needs to explain how this error detracts from using HRmax estimation in many field tests of physical

fitness and in exercise prescription.

**Address for correspondence**: Robert A. Robergs, Ph.D., FASEP, EPC, Director-Exercise Physiology

Laboratories, Exercise Science Program, Department of Physical Performance and Development, Johnson

Center, Room B143, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1258, Ph

And just for fun this att.