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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
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Posts: 1,530
 #1 
Here  a great group of top coaches  in the  ice hockey field. This is a nice next step we are working on. See, what kind of training creates what king of   changes in the SmO2 picture and combine it with   respiration and cardiac  dynamic. Thanks Brian.
  By the way. Brian  Next Level SP is will be the first Canadian fully equipped Spiro Tiger competency center with the latest  soft ware MIRROR, a tool which allows coaches seeing directly how the  athlete is training  at home anywhere in Canada with his respiratory device and we will be able to add MOXY in to the picture . So stay tuned as suddenly   many new ideas are moving into reality.

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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
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Posts: 1,530
 #2 
Next Level SP and Brian are super busy touring Canada and send us   literally hundreds of in formations back. Thanks so much.
 Brian is integrating MOXY in many different sports but mainly acyclic sports.
 We developed the idea of IPAHD and IPAHR.
 IPAHR standing for individual assessment of homeostasis recovery.
  Remember our question below :
 What is Endurance.
  Now IPAHR is the future test on the ice or soccer field  to be used in cases like ice hickey.
 Why would we test and ice hockey player on a bike  with a VO2 max test ??
 Here  just for fun some of our ongoing development and research with NEXT LEVEL SP  and Brian Kozak's team.

1 att question what is endurance.
  att. 2 a IPAHR  section and  att 3 a IPAHD section same athlete   Look at it  at give it some thoughts. Stay tuned and watch as Brina just finished  100 test in Ontario and will move now south in BC to the Okanagan and Vancouver area.

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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
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Posts: 1,530
 #3 
Question was coming in from Europe.
 IPAHR  ( Individual physiological assessment of homeostasis recovery.
 See  again the pic from one  of Brian's ( Next :level ) on ice test.
 The load was a 1 min all out test. You can see how many second the player draws O2 before he hits a plateau and maintains it  for the rest.
 . What you like to train is, that he can draw longer  and than you look at the recovery  in the 3 min to see how fast he  is able to recover. This  for the moment   times the interval workout for this player in load and recovery phase. In the past like in this case we had to do from an IPAHR . Now with MOXY we can  look at  every workout  as the athlete has  SmO2 for this loads. ( HR does not work  , as well the idea that  120 HR Is a good recovery heart rate  is hardly an individual information on recovery. Lactate is far behind the real situation.

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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Registered:
Posts: 1,530
 #4 
I like to give this answer   here, as the example I will use  are from Brian's great group.
The Question, which is coming in more and more is :
 Why would we have to change the current and accepted 3 min step test to another  protocol.
I will show you  later  , how  many  new directions and studies even from the big name start to accept, that 3 min in many cases is a time limitation, which does not allow the physiological system to have a full ability to adapt to the new load , when changed every 3 min.
Before we go to some "newer" ideas I like to show you when and where we started to get somewhat  more critical to indirect testing like VO2 max and lactate in particular.
 This is a very old summary and you can see from some older studies, who all opened questions on the  use of a " lactate threshold and its actually  value inn setting anything up.
This is   why MOXY can offer same very interesting new ideas and options, when we  are ready to accept the weakness of the traditional ideas.
 Here  for the critical thinker   some   nice wording.
 It is NOT from me   but I can't remember the great author on these , so if somebody is familiar  with this author please sent the name as it is a just and unbelievable great   discussion and I like to give the flower back to the original brain here.
"

Thirdly, an alternate or a complementary explanation to the pattern of plasma ]La-] response to ramp exercise can be suggested. According to this explanation, lactate is produced in the working muscle: (1) as soon as the exercise begins, as suggested by Brooks (1985); or (2) following a delay, according to the theory of the anaerobic threshold (Davis 1985). Under both hypotheses the onset of lactate production within the working muscles occurs at comparatively low work rates. At that time: (1) the amounts of lactate produced  and the gradient between muscle [La-] and plasma [La-], and the amount of lactate released from the muscle remains small; (2) cardiac output and muscle blood flow are also low and do not favour lactate release

from the working muscles and its distribution into S; and (3) the small amounts of lactate released are diluted within the comparatively large S, thus resulting in a very small increase (if any) in plasma [La-]. Therefore,

a delay could be expected between the beginning of lactate production within the working muscles and the parabolic rise in plasma [La-] in response to ramp exercise in a similar way that, in response to a short period of severe exercise, the peak value of plasma [La-] is only observed following a several-minute delay into the recovery period (see Hirvonen et al. 1987, 1992). Consequently, plasma [La-] concentration at a given t during a ramp exercise does not reflect lactate production in the muscle at that precise t and at the

exact corresponding work rate, but at a previous t minus ~ of unknown and probably variable length, and at the corresponding work rate. This phenomenon might have been overlooked in the development of the theory

of the anaerobic threshold which implicitly assumes that plasma [La-] at a given t reflects lactate production and thus the metabolic state of the muscles at that precise t, and at the exact corresponding work rate. This is very unlikely to be the case, particularly during the exercise protocols of short duration and with steep increase in work rate used for the detection of the anaerobic threshold (Anderson and Rhodes 1989). In this type of protocol, where VO2 significantly lags behind the value expected for the corresponding

work rate (Whippet al. 1981), it may be expected that plasma [La-] also tracks the metabolic state of the working muscles with a significant delay, particularly at the beginning of exercise for the reasons presented

above." 
So here first one of many test  when we do IPAHD  5/1/5 and therefor have a much longer time to  see and understand the delay in lactate. See pic one.
 Than pic 2 and 3.
 A three minute step and than an IPAHD  same athlete   and you can see, that in a step test we  have some  problem and discussion , when what may create a homeostasis or not  and on the other side in the IPAHD you have really nice information, as the  systems have time to see, how they may be able to compensate for a system which may push its limits.

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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Registered:
Posts: 1,530
 #5 
Yes there is a connection between Active and not active muscle oxygenation. I was not too keen to get into that as of yet, as I have only about 50 - 60  case studies done. I plan  over the next month to  get many more with a target of 500 plus. Next month I have Andri here in Canada for some research work and to  get some additional work done for the opening of many  Competency centers all over Europe soon and as well some in North America . So we have to get a great seminar handout going as a work in progress and not as a " Bible" or anything, as we learn with each single test we do.
 So here just a direction to the question I got from 3 people  ( 1 rower and 2 cross-country skier ).
 I think it is very interesting , that this question comes out of this 2 fascinating corners.
1. Both sports have one in common :
 Total body involvement, so a huge  amount of muscles asking all at the same time for  energy.
 When we look through the literature, than we can see, that if we "split" into upper and lower body , meaning we test arms only and than legs only  and we  add both parts together, it simply does not add up. Meaning the VO2 used in arms only and the VO2 used in legs only , or the CO in arms only and CO in legs only do not add up. In very simple terms. In good trained athletes in this sport, the active muscle mass would take far too much O2 in to be able to convert if possible, but the Vital organs simply can't deliver this demand. So in top athletes we will see a limitation of the delivery system ( respiration ( not lungs ) and or cardiac hemodynamic. Meaning that the muscle system could use much more O2 without problem but the delivery is unable to  bring the O2 . In other words the great observation by Marshall 1967 of the so called sleeping Giant is  possibly real. The great ideas of a CGM ( Noakes) or an ECGM A. Feldmann Masterwork ) is possibly  real as well. The CGM will have to decide who and how he may distribute the available O2. Or the chemical exercise physiology wil decide what  medication ( EPO ) we can add to  push this reaction out as long as possible. That's why we see very little reaction and performance improvement in beginners on EPO as the limitation is often not the delivery system , but the vascularisation and or the mitochondria density.
 This as well is one of the reasons  why and where we see VO2 plateaus and why in many people not.
 This later for sure as we  go ahead and show how MOXY 9NIRS) can show many of the is questions live.
 Now here to the question of MOXY reaction  and where to place.
 A make a very dangerous statement now here.
 For endurance sport it really does not matter where you place it. For  interval and strength, where you look for absolute numbers you place it on the main working muscles.
 So endurance intensity. Dangerous statement ( not enough data's as of yet )
 If I place  as a cyclist or a runner the MOXY on a not major ( inactive ) muscle, I will see the same trend as on an active muscles, just smaller amplitude.
 In fact I will see  an initial increase  of SmO2 in the warm up phase, as a sign of increase in circulation of blood and  the low need of O2 as there is enough available for anybody.
 Than I will reach a plateau and in low intensities till to the  end of the STEI intensity it will remain  flat.
 Once I reach an intensity , where the demand of O2 is getting critically high I will see a drop in the  nonactive muscles as the body will crate a reflex controlled ( CGM ) vasoconstriction  in the non active muscles to reduce blood flow in this area  and concentrate the blood flow to the working muscles.
 That means, if we load a muscle we will see first a drop in SmO2 in the main muscle and as long the main muscle is able to create  ATP oxygen dependent he will try to do that . A drop or possibly an increase in H + or changes  in the working muscles  ( perhaps as well lactate as a messenger) will try to find O2 where it is not needed and this than is generated over a vasoconstriction of the non active muscle areas.
 Reasoning :
 An inactive muscle  will use more or less the same amount of O2 all the time during a test.
 So a reduced inflow O2Hb and reduced tHb would  correspond to a delivery reduction of O2   and tHb . So the drop in SmO2  in this case can be explain not over more O2 use but over less delivery.
 Summary : In many cases the tHb  and the SmO2  together will help to tell you , whether you have a delivery problem or a local  O2  "use " (conversion ) problem  I will show later today an independent NIRS study sent to me by P and Clint, where we have both of this picture by one single athlete produced due to the step length in the 2 tests. Here one of many ( more needed ) case studies , where we loaded in the STEI , FEI zone to see how an inactive muscle trend would look compared to the working muscle.
 There is a comprehensive testing going on in that area in Norway by a great group and friends of us, who use 2 moxy system on Cross country skier as we write here and speak. Many thanks to this group who took the time to come to our seminar in Switzerland  a month ago.
 Here one of some  cases nonactive and active  MOXY trend I show just SmO2 

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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Registered:
Posts: 1,530
 #6 
Here an answer to an increasing number of readers, who work in A-cyclic sorts like soccer, football, tennis, Ice hockey, Volley ball to name some  of them, but as well in sports like MTB or even road racing, where short high intensity loads are needed in many cases.
 We have 2 assessment version as mentioned many time on here and on other forums.
 1. Version for training intensity control  for endurance workouts.
 Basically we assess the body to see, where homeostasis  breaks apart or can be achieved anymore.
 IPAHD was the name.
 2. Version where we  know you never have a chance to find a homeostasis as the load is simple straight forward all out. Here current ideas of looking at intensity do not work very well. HR is of no value, lactate as well % of VO2 max does not help . and wattage is a physical number, who does not tell the duration of an individual load but only the height you pushed.
 So what we need is a window in the working muscle to see, how he reacts as you workout. MOXY NIRS is the  window.
 What we look is  on the duration of the DE OXYGENATION TIME.
 FOLLOWED BY THE PHASE WHERE WE GO HYPOXIC ( NO DROP OF sMo2 ANYMORE EVEN IF THERE IS STILL o2 THERE.
 THAN FOLLOWED UP BY THE DURATION OF THE RECOVERY OF THE OXYGEN LEVEL TO START LEVEL  AND IF WE HAVE ONE WE LOOK AT THE  LEVEL OF THE "OVERCOMPENSATION " THE TIME AND HOW LONG i AM ABOVE  BASE LINE AND WHERE WOULD IT BE THE BEST TIME TO START THE NEXT LOAD.
 IN SIMPLE TERM WE LOOK AT HOW LONG SHALL WE LOAD FOR WHAT GOAL. , THAN HOW LONG SHALL WE REST  FOR WHAT GOAL.
 here PIC ONE A TEST ON THE ICE SO WE SEE, HOW long THIS PLAYER CAN GO WITH o2  AND HOW LONG HE IS GOING o2 INDEPENDENT AND  HOW LONG =G HE NEEDS TO RECOVER BACK TO BASE LINE. basically THE KEY FOR AN INDIVIDUAL INTERVAL WORKOUT  ON  NUMBER OF SETS AND DURATION OF LOAD AND REST, AS WELL AN INFORMATION FOR COACHES ON THE REACTION  OF THE ATHLETES WHEN TOO LONG ON THE ICE ( DOUBLE SHIFT) AND SO ON.
 enjoy THE GREAT WORK  OF next level ONLY  GROUP , WHO IS DOING  PHYSIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS ON THE ICE WITH EASY AND SIMPLE  TOOLS moxy BUT EFFECTIVE AND FAST. testing A FULL TEAM OR JUNIOR a TEAM IN 3 - 4 HOURS WITH A INTERVAL OR  GAME INFORMATION OF LOAD AND REST  LEVELS FOR  COACHES.
  Next level is again on tour  this week  with their next team getting ready for the upcoming season.  Pic 2 is a part out of the MOXY competency center interpretation papers so the coaches  can see, how the reaction is in O2 and HHb  trends as well as in tHb.

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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Registered:
Posts: 1,530
 #7 
Now let's follow up in the NEXT Level case studies  and the great information Brian Kozak is collecting. We pushed MOXY as an equipment to its limit to see how many athletes we can test in what time  and this month we will push  us on the limit to see how many interpretation we can handle by testing 170 athletes in the shortest time possible. time.Now here some additional information.
 . The goal is to be able to have as a coach in a center  a group of athletes working out individually  but still having them as a group. You  prepare them for an interval workout all out but we all know , that their ability to produce ATP will be very different. Some may be able to use  much longer O2 ( lower SmO2  level ) than others and some may be able to go much longer hypoxic ( O2 independent some call it anaerobic )
 In the pic the hypoxic intensity is yellow.
 The  intensity where we use O2  plus O2 independent energy is green.
 Some may recover faster to base line ( Orange) and some may have a PLOI  ( post load oxygenation intensity.) some may have no PLOI and some may be below base line SmO2.

So in the past due to lack of ability to  use physiological information we developed a habit to count the fingers n our hand and decided to make 5 sets.
It was easy to look at a big clock on the wall and one  arrow on the circle was 1 min and therefore the rest time was 1 min. And this was for all the same.
 Now we organize the interval based on individual information.
 Athlete A will go all out till he hits his current lowest SmO2 level of 35. Than he has a rest time till he hits his start SmO2 level again of 65 than he goes again to reach 35  and rests till 65  and so on. How many times?
 Till he can't either recover or  oxygenate anymore.
  That will be his reps. Athlete B ) will do the same but will have to go till he hits SmO2 of 11 and recovery baseline back to 75  and so on.
 All work  all out. They see the SmO2 values either on their watch  or the coach can see them in the biog screen  on the wall or on his laptop and can control the athletes individually in one easy way. No  watching on  time or whistle a sign for go and stop  just   control the quality of the athletes  just working athletes and quality control coach.
 Here 23 pics  with 1 and 2 showing test results of an IPAHR on the ice and the  information of the individual energy  situation.
 The pic 3 shows you a screen short of the coaches view on the three athletes working out live  from the energy situation in their muscles.

This can be done in a spinning class or as strength class or  many more options.
 This is what we call physiological training based on individual information.

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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Registered:
Posts: 1,530
 #8 
Sorry for the mess up with the previous post. I was writing and looked out my window and my goat herd was underway through the fence getting  n my garden so had to make an emergency exit to save the food for the winter.
 The only safe way to survive, as posting her is no real income ( Smile ) so my cheese and milk  supply was getting in my Vitamin and carb supply and I had to make a decisions to separate the two.  So above the final post from this emergency trip.
Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Registered:
Posts: 1,530
 #9 
Yes w  is the answer on the question, whether we have a " Zoning " we name it an intensity information in endurance assessments.
 and yes  as you figured out how easy it is for interval  as easy it is for endurance, if you run a proper physiological assessment.
 The main  problem, why many people do not get a result is already discussed to  all length on this forum. So here just a great example form a physiological assessment and the " intensities who go with it.
 The  " IPAHD  as we named it   will have an  end  zone in red HI  which than leads into the IPAHR   with the result you see above.
 Now you have a complete information using MOXY for endurance intensity control as well for interval intensity control. Here the endurance assessment intensity  sheet.
TIP training intensity profile.

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