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Development Team Member
Posts: 26
Hi All,

I'm still trying to wrap my head around how Moxy could help me in my interval trainings
and outside trainings.  My coach prescribes me this routine (for example):

15 min warming up

10 x 30 sec in Zone 5

Between this blocks, 45 sec recup

After this first block a rest period of 15 minutes

Then again:

10 x 30 sec in Zone 5

Between this blocks, 45 sec recup

At the end 15 minutes rest

I want to know if the moxy sensor could help me to determine if the resting periods between these intervals are long enough to give me enough time to recuperate before going full throttle again in the next interval.  In my opinion the above training protocol has it's benefits but it sounds like a textbook example that is not fitted to the individual athelete.

Best Regards,
Bart Coddens

Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Thank you so much for this  very  clear  questions and a perfect  example  for  the current interval ideas  and what we  think MOXY  can be used  for.
 I will try  ( please come  back  critical  )  to explain where the difference is.
 Before we  can do that we need  some help.
  Question:  :
 what is the  coaches    goal to imp[orve  with this  interval  besides  making it a hard interval.
 Example :
 a)  doe he  likes  to get a  Stroke volume  stimulation ?
 b)  does he  likes  to stimulate desaturation
c)  does he likes  to create  specific  muscle  contraction force
d)  doe she like a  complete  re oxygenation ( Cr.P  reloading  ) in the rest period
e)  does he likes  to  have  an incomplete  recovery  stimulation
f)  doe she like a  " super compensation recovery  idea
g)  is there a specific  intra  or intermuscular idea  behind his  plan.
h )  what doe she likes to achieve in the warm up .
i) what does he likes  to achieve in the  recovery longer period  section between the   intervals.
J  what is his  physiological explanation of  10  reps  in each  of the loads
K)  why  30 seconds  load 
 L [wink] why  45  second  recovery
 So  once we know the idea  or  goal of the workout  we than  can use MOXY  to try  whether we  can achieve it.
. One  additional option is to have this workout recorded  on MOXY  and than sent the csv  file  if possible including HR  and more feedback you guys may collect  like wattage  and RF  and perhaps even VO2  and lactate.
 So  once we have the goal  of the workout  and than the  workout live  feedback we  can see, whether this goal  was achieved  or not.

 last  question Zone  5    : I assume it is  based on FTP . so we  will have  either wattage  for the load  or   HR , which does not  work  very well so wattage is much better.
. Now  how  do you guys  know that  Zone  5 wattage  is  today  still the same wattage  as it was   when you did the test ?  Now here  what the suggestions are  for  Zone 5

Watt 106 - 120 %  of  FTP
HR  above  100 %  average HR
 PE 6 - 7
 recommended  loads  5  x  5 min ?

Here the original
coggan  zoning  and effect.jpg 2.jpg 


Development Team Member
Posts: 26
Hi Juerg,

I will mail my coach to answer the questions.
Thanks for the reply !
The intervals are indeed on level 5.

Best Regards,

Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Thanks  for the feedback.
 The questions are NOT a  critic  on anybody  but  an invitation to look at the  possible difference between  what we  did  and what we  may be able to  do.
 So  here a  question to you as I  ask all my  patients  and athletes this  question.
 What  is the goal of the training  you  do  for now  , did  you and the coach  or therapist or doctor  discuss  ,  the goal  and is there  any  evidence  that this plan  has  the  reaction  as we   hope to have. ?
 So what  was the goal  from your knowledge on this  workout  ?
 You do not have to answer this  if it is     just for you  . It is  just as  an example how we  work .
Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Now  I like to give  some  ideas  to this  questions I added  so  you can see  why we  are not sure anymore, whether we  can  just set up a cookbook  and hope  it  taste  well.
 Remember the difference between a  franchise  like Mc Donald's, where all taste  the same  and a  great french  cuisine  , where  all taste  great  but different   where ever you go ?
Now  that is  perhaps the difference between having a coach    and having a cook book.  or at least we hope.
  So   why  do I believe    when   I give 10 reps in Zone 5 ( 106 - 120 %  of FTP  wattage , we  have  very little  information    form a physiological point of  view  what we  really may or  may not  trigger  and  as  such  very  little ideas  , what may have caused the great  result  or the less optimal performance.
 Here  an example  from a cyclist.
  We used 5   loads , because  we  had  only one hand free  to make the decision as the other hand  was  needed to write  .
 So very poor  example  from our  side  with 5  reps.
 The  first 2  loads  where  with 120+-%  of FTP  an the  last three loads  with  106 +- %  FTP.
So  same ' Zone "
 so here the result

usa o2 hb hhb  thb all.jpg

 Take red    and think it is green and you have the trend  of SmO2
 Brown as usual is tHb as  an indication of the  blood flow  and therefor  of the local   reaction  of blood flow.
1. The  2  120 +-  clearly needed  more O2    to be achieved  which really is not surprising. Now  look  at the tHb in the first  120  and the second  120 .
 What is different in the way  the  athlete  used his VL, Than compare  level of tHb in 120  and the 106 +-  and look at trend.
 Once you  see, this you may ask, whether the Zone one  may contain different  stimulus  and whether  even the same  load of 120  may  have  options  to create different stimuli.   Now  here a  second  example  form a  center sent to us. Same idea  on the workout  but  different  times used so  instead of  30 seconds  same zoning but  45  seconds  or  60 seconds  and so on.

frist load  thb smo2.jpg 
Now here  another  athlete  from the same group

smo2  thb  3  and 4  th  load.jpg

What is the difference. Well it is the  same zoning    for  each of the athlete but different times  and  different reactions ?

 Now  lats example    when doing  loads  in the actual sport  like in this case on the ice  and when doing a  simulation as close  as possible.
 As we see in ice hockey there is a different in all out  ability  of   how the body reacts. Now the  same    but not  as extreme  is when we do a  cycling test on a  indoor wattage trainer an than do an interval in the  hill  side  as a MTB  guy.
Here to enjoy  Below an example   done by Brian Kozak of next level  consulting one of the leading   groups in individual  sport specific  training consulting in Canada  for Ice hockey.
on and off ice comp.jpg

Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Thanks  got a  first  e mail back   for this thread. Point of  discussion.
 FTP  will not change that much    so we can use the wattage  over a certain amount of weeks.
 Absolutely agree , that in many  situations  FTP  is a  very stable situation  and  can be used  as a guide  and nice  would be if we  can combine it  with  life  bio marker feedback.
Small problem is, that it can change by a lot  due to  some specific situations  like we  have  for   example today here  with very warm  temperature.
 Here a very old internal case study    to show you  some   numbers examples. 

heat  and  glucose.jpg

Now  I believe the FTP info  is great  but you  can combien it  with MOXY  and it will help to keep you in the physiological intensity  zoning   if you like or it will  keep you in the mathematical  training  zoning but than there  is a different stimulus. In many sports  we do not have thtis problme as it will  be  MOXY guided  anyway  as we  do not have wattage.

Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530

Got a  nice mail:
 The points  I asked  from the original poster  : What is the goal  of the workout ?
 The email states, that  what I listed  up  sounds really great in theory  but it never happens  in real training.
 Well that is a great critical statement . My  question back would be:
 What is  the purpose of a training program if  I do not set a goal or a  purpose.?
 True  we  can go out  and the   goal is  to have fun, which I believe is a very  important purpose  and this type of a  workout  will lead to progress  as well without any sophisticated  tools  and ideas.
 In fact any  or many people    starting    as a new year idea a  workout program will make  initially progress in one or the other way  without  any zoning ideas , LT ideas  and  as well without MOXY.
 This  reason of progress, regular  workout  is one of the reason as well why we believe LT  training creates progress. There is no evidence  at all, that LT creates  progress. the evidence is that when people start more or less organised a regular  workout routine  they make fast  and less fats progress no matter what they believe in.
 The bigger  interesting questions show  up , when the progress  does not  occur  anymore  due to the  adaptation.
 Adaptation in training is a  dialectic  contradiction.
 You will make  progress because you adapt  and you will end the progress  because you adapted.
 This interesting  situation is  most likely  one of the main reason, why periodization as we  learned  is    not a great ideas.
 Why  would you have a  time periodization , when we see physiologically you adapted  and  it is time to change the stressor  or why  do you stop a periodization phase  when you see  you still make physiological progress.

 Here is where NIRS/ MOXY  can contribute  to a nice change in the  way we  plan  rehabilitation  and  workouts. In the short  term meaning during a  load  and in the longer term meaning when we see the Limiter is now  no Limiter anymore  and a  former compensator now is the current limiter.

 So back to the point o the email.
 Why  would I use a performance  feedback when I can use a physiological feedback ?
 How about using both  so I can see , whether the physiological reaction today  creates a different performance result.
 Key word this days is  HEAT.
 Does  your performance test done under    relative low  temperature   is  still achievable under heat.
 Other key word  altitude .
 Same  FTP  on sea level and in altitude.
 Many more questions.
 So  I believe we can set a  clear goal  from a physiological point of view  and than see live , whether the loads I decided  to  use  really achieve this   goal

 Here 2  examples  from todays  clients in my office .
 1. A  top class  ice hockey player  who plays in Switzerland  and  is   for rehab  now in my office here in Canada  for a few month.
Problem  ( Acetabulum  operation.
 So  we can't yet load  heavy on his legs  but we have to train  still his  leg muscles  to maintain  and hopefully improve his  desaturation ability.
  So goal is a  desaturation stress. That means  we have to recue the delivery ability  so he has to  try to desaturation. 1.

 warm up  with the goal  of  synovial increase in the joint  but without   stimulating the delivery systems  so we  start than we a  very low  tHb  compared  to the start.

 for this we use tHb  as  feedback see above  leg and arm  now below to see it better

arm leg thb   all 3 july.jpg 

Now below a    BETTER  FEEDBACK USING biased  IDEAS

biased leg.jpg 

You can see , when he started out his " classical "  warm up it  went in the wrong direction so we corrected it . What did  changed.
 This is  one goal  to get ready for the   workout. Next up  we  show  you how we  created a delivery problem so we where able to  stimulate  deoxygenation. so stay tuned.

Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Got  some more  mails with  some easy summary of  most of  them.
 They  tell me to keep on  "Dreaming"
 That is pretty much  what I  do since many  many years.
 Here my dream:
 I believe, when  coaches  and exercise physiologists  go through years of learning and we never stop learning , than we start to create dreams.
 Dreams like , that there  is no such thing like a  calculated  prediction of  physiological reactions  so  we dream, that  one  day we have affordable equipment, where we  can serve  each single  customer  we have, no matter whether  it is a patient  and  or a  world class athlete with the ability to  assess, where this person is, what happens now  and  what is the result of the information we  can gather.
 I  honestly  dream  and hope, that we never  will be able  to  create a cookbook  for any  workout ideas  and that  this is  what makes the difference  between a coach  and a  coach.
 If I really would believe  we can calculate   physiological reactions over  any formulas  and performance , than that would be  very  very hard  to accept. I  still believe  that coaching is more  an art than a  science  or  math. It is the art of   assessing the situation  from a physiological   point of view  but   as well or  perhaps even more  from a psychological point of  view. Any  top testing  can't  replace the   athletes  or clients  willingness to  work on his own  abilities  and  strength and weaknesses.
 This is  why  top athletes  never or really ,have their top performance   when they theoretically are in the  physiological prime time. Many many  " peak " once they get the complete  concepts  of    personal  best and performance fun  and health.
 So Yes I dream, that  a  quality  coach is doing more than  using a  calculator  and %  of  something we  can't find  really a maximal performance. I hope that the   direction we move  with today's technology  is  a  direction we see in many other areas of medicine  , and individual approach  with   one  customer at a time.
 With  feedback  from the  customer    from all what he  can give us  as feed backs.
 Than  the next step is  for the dreaming coach,  to find  ways  on how  to  solve or try to achieve  the new  goals  and targets  by creating individual approaches.

 That's'  why I have problems  to understand the concepts  of  5  loads or 10 loads. of  1 min rest  and  30  seconds  go, of 400 m  runs  and 50 m swims  , of pre planned    loads based on  performance  instead of  physiological goals settings. I can  and I use  time  and loads  and distances  as well but guided  by  physiological feed backs   so a combination most likely  will be the most successful  new direction.

 Now  here another dream  as a  workout.

 Let's see, whether I  can formulate  it properly.

a) If  I like to stimulate  deoxygenation than  I  try  to  reduce  delivery.
 So   If  I reduce delivery  to the working area,  but keep loading , than the body may  have to try to use  what is there  rather than    looking whether somebody is able to deliver.

b) If  I like to stimulate delivery, than I try to create a situation, where I  can not use  or deoxygenate  as easy  so I  have to try  to   deliver more.

 First   pic  is a workout  where we  had the target to  stimulate deoxygenation  so  we  cut the delivery as much down as possible
biased leg.jpg 

You can see  again the  short problem at the beginning where delivery  took over  so we had  to  manipulate this so we  had  always a  high stimulation of deoxygenation   as we reduced  the delivery ability.
 Biased  pictures  are  easy to understand as you can see, that  from the start on we   always   utilized  more than we  where able to deliver.
 This was on a leg.
  So now  the  next  pic is the same    person  but the goal was  to reduce the ability  to utilize so the body tried  to deliver more .

bias leg  ellip.jpg 

 So  when we  do intervals  we  have to  watch carefully , whether  the 10  reps we  do really maintain the same  goal or target  or whether we may  slip  from a   utilization stimulation into a  delivery stimulation ?


Development Team Member
Posts: 26
Hi All,

My trainer came back from vacation and I got this reply:

This is raining is an intensive interval training with the purpose of improving the lactic anaerobic system.
This means that the load is high and that heartbeat reaches peaks high above the anaerobic marker.  Lactic acid values above 10 mmol/L in the blood are no exception.  The purpose of this training is:

1.) Improvement of the anaerobic lactic capacity by improving the lactic production, buffering and tolerance of the muscles (aka winning the final)

2.) Improving the cycling technique under heavy loads

3.) Improving the explosive capacities

Best Regards,
Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Thanks  and great feedback.
 Allow me  to ask some   critical  questions not  with the intension to   take anything apart, but to show  you how  we  differ  more and more  form the  great "classical" theories we  all know  and used  and try to adpapt  and integrate  ideas now  available thanks to new  technology.
 The  below  questions  based on the answer above  form yoru coach are for us  again  a greta  way  to show you, that we  would have given the same answer 10 - 15 years back, than went through a phase  of  major  confusion ( and are sometimes  still conused )  as more and more  studeis  started to  question  classical believes due to new  technology.
 So the questions are  an example of loud thinking on our part. that is it , and not a  critic  on anybody out there.
 So PLEASE  do not look  at this as a   we know  it all and  you know nothing ,  but look at it as a  challange we all face together   in the  comming years.

So before we  do some  questioning  with some feedback I love to use a  section   from T. Noakes  paper

How does a foundational myth become sacred scientific dogma?

The case of A.V. Hill and the anaerobiosis controversy

Part 1

by Tim Noakes

Lessons from a medical training

The first great lesson of medicine is to teach one’s supreme level of personal stupidity. Indeed there is a collective level of medical ignorance, so brilliantly described by Dr Lewis Thomas (1985: 10):

The greatest single achievement of science in this most scientifically productive of centuries is the discovery that we are profoundly ignorant. … I wish there were some formal courses in medical school on medical ignorance; textbooks as well, although they would have to be very heavy volumes. We have a long way to go.

Indeed, the beauty of the Textbooks of Ignorance would be their accuracy. I am reminded of these quotations whenever a scientist expounds the ignorance of absolute certainty. Regardless of any appearance of individual brilliance, we are each profoundly ignorant. And never more so than when we are absolutely certain of our most brilliant opinions.

This distinctive characteristic of modern medicine to challenge the truth (Le Fanu 1999), explains the intellectual paradox captured in the classic quotation attributed to a former Dean of Harvard, Dr Sydney Burwell by G.W. Pickering (1956: 14), himself formerly Professor of Medicine at the University of London and a protagonist in one of the classic medical arguments of the twentieth century (Swales 1985): ‘My students are dismayed when I say to them, ‘‘Half of what you are taught as medical students will in 10 years have been shown to be wrong. And the trouble is, none of your teachers know which half’’’.

The second great advantage of my medical education was that it included nothing about the exercise sciences, other than that which I taught myself. Learning in this way has important disadvantages, but one unique advantage is the avoidance of indoctrination, which is the tendency towards a stubborn, if subconscious, acceptance of a specific scientific mindset or prejudice that we acquire from our venerated tutors whom we assume to be intellectually infallible (Waller 2002). This could perhaps be termed the Tyranny of the Founder Effect.

 So below now  questions we had  to ask ourself  and again I use the  answers  from what we  all would answer. 

1.) Improvement of the anaerobic lactic capacity by improving the lactic production, buffering and tolerance of the muscles (aka winning the final)

a)   what if there is no such thing like anaerobic ?

Richardson et al have concluded that: ‘‘…intracellular pO2 remains constant during graded incremental exercise in humans (50–100% of muscle VO2max)’’ so that: ‘‘With respect to the concept of the ‘‘anaerobic’’ threshold, these data demonstrate that, during incremental exercise, skeletal muscle cells do not become anaerobic as lactate levels suddenly rise, as intracellular pO2 is well preserved at a constant level, even at maximal exercise’’ (p. 63168). They also conclude that: ‘‘Net blood lactate efflux was unrelated to intracellular pO2 across the range of incremental exercise to exhaustion’’ but was ‘‘linearly related to O2 consumption’’ (p. 62768). Another study confirmed these conclusions: ‘‘…consequently these data again demonstrate that, as assessed by cytosolic oxygenation state (deoxy-Mb) during incremental exercise, skeletal muscle cells do not become ‘‘anaerobic’’ as lactate levels rise, because intracellular PO2 is well preserved at a low but constant level even at maximal exercise’’

b) what is lactic capacity ? how  do we meaure this , when we do not know  what is produced  nor  what is used.  Nor do we know  when   the value we read is  produced in a  10 x  30 seconds    workout or a 3  min step test. We have a number   from teh finger  that is all.

Thirdly, an alternate or a complementary explanation to the pattern of plasma ]La-] response to ramp exercise can be suggested. According to this explanation, lactate is produced in the working muscle: (1) as soon as the exercise begins, as suggested by Brooks (1985); or (2) following a delay, according to the theory of the anaerobic threshold (Davis 1985). Under both hypotheses the onset of lactate production within the working muscles occurs at comparatively low work rates. At that time: (1) the amounts of lactate produced and the gradient between muscle [La-] and plasma [La-], and the amount of lactate released from the muscle remains small; (2) cardiac output and muscle blood flow are also low and do not favour lactate release


from the working muscles and its distribution into S; and (3) the small amounts of lactate released are diluted within the comparatively large S, thus resulting in a very small increase (if any) in plasma [La-]. Therefore,


a delay could be expected between the beginning of lactate production within the working muscles and the parabolic rise in plasma [La-] in response to ramp exercise in a similar way that, in response to a short period of severe exercise, the peak value of plasma [La-] is only observed following a several-minute delay into the recovery period (see Hirvonen et al. 1987, 1992). Consequently, plasma [La-] concentration at a given t during a ramp exercise does not reflect lactate production in the muscle at that precise t and at the


exact corresponding work rate, but at a previous t minus ~ of unknown and probably variable length, and at the corresponding work rate. This phenomenon might have been overlooked in the development of the theory


of the anaerobic threshold which implicitly assumes that plasma [La-] at a given t reflects lactate production and thus the metabolic state of the muscles at that precise t, and at the exact corresponding work rate. This is very unlikely to be the case, particularly during the exercise protocols of short duration and with steep increase in work rate used for the detection of the anaerobic threshold (Anderson and Rhodes 1989). In this type of protocol, where VO2 significantly lags behind the value expected for the corresponding


work rate (Whippet al. 1981), it may be expected that plasma [La-] also tracks the metabolic state of the working muscles with a significant delay, particularly at the beginning of exercise for the reasons presented above.

d) why do you have to tolerate lactate when in fact adding lactate improves performance.

 Respiration  and respiratory training, more than just for fun.

: "Because lactate is combusted [metabolized] as an acid (C3H6O3), not an anion (C3H5O3), the combustion of an externally supplied salt of lactic acid, CHO3H5O3- + H+ + 3O2 ¨ 3H2O + 3CO2 effects the removal of the proton taken up during endogenous lactic acid production (Gladden, L. B. and J. W. Yates, J Appl Physiol 54:1254-1260, 1983). A side benefit of alkalizing the plasma

by feeding lactate would be to enhance movement (efflux) of lactic acid from active muscles into plasma, a process which is inhibited by low (relative to muscle) blood pH. 

(Brooks, G. A. and D. A. Roth, Med Sci Sports Exerc 21(2):S35-207, 1989; Roth, D. A. and G. A. Brooks, Med Sci Sports Exerc 21(2):S35-206, 1989). Moreover, maintenance of a more normal blood pH during strenuous exercise would decrease the performer's perceived level of exertion. The conversion of lactate to glucose in the liver and kidneys also has alkalizing effects by removing two protons for each glucose molecule formed, 2C3H5O3 + 2H+ ¨ C6H12O6. Thus, whether by oxidation or conversion to glucose, clearance of exogenously supplied lactate lowers the body concentration of H+, raising pH."(22)

e) does the person  with the highest o2 independent   ability  wins the  race or the person with the better O2 availability ?

Glycogen Turnover Forms Lactate during Exercise

Robert G. Shulman
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, MR Research Center, New Haven, CT

Could it be, that the  athlete  with the higher  ability  to  maintain ATP production over O2  may win the race  and not the   guy with the short  term timebomb ability  to   use  somewhat more O2  independent  energy sources. How far down  can you drop with ATP ?

atp crp.jpg 

Evidence That Glycogen Rather Than PCr Generates ATP during Contraction

The conventional view of short-term muscle energetics is that PCr supplies almost all of the energy needed for a sustained burst of contractions lasting less than 10 s, after which it is replaced by glycogenolysis. This view is not supported by experiments. In a recent review, Greenhaff and

Timmons (5) report, “It is now accepted, however, that PCr hydrolysis and lactate production do not occur in isolation, and that both are initiated rather rapidly at the onset of contraction.”

The proposal that glycogenolysis is the ultimate energy source for exercise is supported by studies on patients with McArdle’s disease. In this genetic metabolic disorder, glycogen phosphorylase is completely inactive. Patients experienced exercise intolerance and muscle cramping. 

31P NMR studies (11) of the resting muscle in these patients showed normal PCr, ATP, and Pi levels, but a decidedly higher pH 7.2) than in control subjects (7.02 0.01). During either moderate or high-intensity short-term exercise, PCr decreased much more rapidly in the patients than in the control subjects, whereas the pH remained high, and ATP levels remained constant. The inferred minimal lactate production

in the McArdle’s patients relative to control subjects is evidence that normal muscle uses glycogen to satisfy its contractile energy requirements. Furthermore, the normal levels of PCr present in these patients did not supply enough energy to support mild exercise in the absence of glycogenolytic flux.

Additional evidence that PCr is not the exclusive direct energy-supplying pathway comes from genetic knockout experiments.

Watchko et al. (15) created mutant mouse strains missing either or both forms of creatine kinase and compared functional diaphragm muscle performance with control animals during isotonic activation. Both singly mutated forms showed no difference from control animals in force, velocity, power, time of sustained shortening, and work output, whereas these e reduced in the doubly mutated animal CK( /): a 20%

decrease in the velocity of shortening, 16% decline in maximal power, 30% reduction in work, and a 40% attenuation in the time to sustain shortening during repetitive isotonic activation. However, in contrast to these moderate functional decreases, the creatine kinase activity in CK( /) mutants had decreased

to less than 1% of control values. These results showed that PCr did not serve as a steady-state source of energy. With only 1% of creatine kinase activity, muscle force was only partially  

20%) reduced (14). These experiments force us to discard the notion that PCr provides the entire short-term energy for a contraction. Although there is a role for PCr in providing the proximate energy for contraction by buffering ATP, the temporal coordination of oxidative and nonoxidative pathways supply

the ultimate energy for contraction. ATP would not be well buffered in the CK( /) mutants, which presumably accounts for the partial reductions in force. 

 1.What if  lactci acid  does not exist in the human body , what  do we do with all what we learned  on lactate the  good the  bad  and the ugly ?

Does lactic acid exist in humans?

According to Professor Matthew Hickey, head of the Human Performance Research Lab at Colorado State University, “The bottom line is, no. There is no lactic acid in human beings.”

Why then do we still talk about lactic acid in our bodies? Because of “simple historical inertia,” said Hickey. “It has stuck in the minds of lay audiences, coaches, athletes, etc. But it is based on a misunderstanding about the chemistry.”

.) Improving the cycling technique under heavy loads

 Under  heavy load  we  first of all use the main  coordination muscle  chain   and if we  overload  too long heavy ( see 400 m runners)  than the technique ( coordination )falls  apart completely  and we   " teach " how to survive  with  what we have left, which is not  a great coordination  training , but  a  survival   and  high riks injury  load.

 See in a  wingate   tests or a  30 seconds all out test  10  x,  how the technique realy falls  apart.
 Perhpas  we should look live  how long we supply  O2   or better   supply if we  can  and utilize  O2   and stop the heavy load in  duration and   numbers of  sets  and reps, as  soon we loose the   coordination    as a goal.
 So the training  would be  not  10 x  30 seconds  but  would be based on live  individual feedback  from the athlete  .

 Improving the explosive capacities
 How do  we improve  explosive capacity in 10 x  30 seconds  hard loads.
 What is  explosive capacity  and how  do we see, whether we  work on this ?
 Woudl a very   high SEMG  activity   be  one way to look at this  and how can we  translate this in the workout  live  in the field ?

 Many  open questions  and  little  answers  when we  justify  workouts  based on lactate  and  terms .
 Sounds  good  and I used  this  all the time, hoping nobody  would ask  me what it all means  and where  are the  papers  showing this ideas .

 So  for  us  at least time  to  give it a closer look on what we did  and what we  can adjust because of  newer   ideas  and studies.

 Here  to  end the  discussion , a reminder  my son Andri sent me  lately, when I got too much carried away.

Lawrence Krauss:
"You must conform your beliefs to the evidence, and not the evidence to your beliefs."


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