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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
One of  the main reason, why we have only a few  published   NIRS studies   with strength is  the simple fact, that you may   have a very  big advantage  if you can  use  NIRS on a muscle chain rather than on a single muscle.
 The cost involved to have  even just a  single   moxy site to test was huge  so the coaches  and  centers  simply  could not afford  the  testing. As well the problem  with actually using it practically in a gym.
 Well with MOXY  both problems  are solved.
 When you look  the cost of a  great  "  traditional NIRS  to the cost of MOXY  , than teh ability  to see SmO2  on a  wrist watch compared  to the   whole  equipment  you may use  with the great classical  equipment   shows you why  MOXY  is the big  runner  form the  upcoming season  for coaches  and  athletes.
 Here  another great   summary  who shows  why NIRS  should be used  but   they still have the problem   and  miss the information, that MOXY is  on the market  for anybody to buy.
 I just  had a  discussion with a " leading'   Ph.D  guy  for NIRS  and specialist  who  had no  information what's how ever, that   you can buy MOXY  online. 
 Here  to read:

A brief review of the use of near infrared spectroscopy with particular interest in resistance exercise.


Departmento de Educação Física, Universidade Gama Filho, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


There is growing interest in resistance training, but many aspects related to this type of exercise are still not fully understood. Performance varies substantially depending on how resistance training variables are manipulated. Fatigue is a complex phenomenon usually attributed to central (neuronal) and/or peripheral (muscular) origin. Cerebral oxygenation may be associated with the decision to stop exercise, and muscle oxygenation may be related to resistance training responses. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive optical technique used to monitor cerebral and muscle oxygenation levels. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe the NIRS technique, validation and reliability, and its application in resistance exercise. NIRS-measured oxygenation in cerebral tissue has been validated against magnetic resonance imaging during motor tasks. In muscle tissue, NIRS-measured oxygenation was shown to be highly related to venous oxygen saturation and muscle oxidative rate was closely related to phosphocreatine resynthesis, measured by (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy after exercise. The test-retest reliability of cerebral and muscle NIRS measurements have been established under a variety of experimental conditions, including static and dynamic exercise. Although NIRS has been used extensively to evaluate muscle oxygenation levels during aerobic exercise, only four studies have used this technique to examine these changes during typical resistance training exercises. Muscle oxygenation was influenced by different resistance exercise protocols depending on the load or duration of exercise, the number of sets and the muscle being monitored. NIRS is a promising, non-invasive technique that can be used to evaluate cerebral and muscle oxygenation levels simultaneously during exercise, thereby improving our understanding of the mechanisms influencing performance and fatigue.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
What  do we  do  with strength and MOXY.
 We are in the midst  of  preparing a  starter    e book info on MOXY and strength  workouts.
 The  critical  situation is  to not   jump brutally into the existing ideas  but rather  combine   many great existing ideas  by slowly  introducing  MOXY into the   tools   for training intensity a and recover  length  control.
We use  MOXY  ( NIRS since many years  fro  strength  and we  may  simply   think very different  than what  most of  us  are used   with strength as well as  with endurance  wo4krouts.
  I like to show  here a very   short idea  on how a  strength workout  looks   for my clients.

a)  elderly  client  with   know    joint problems.
1.  "lubrication"  active ROM   through the motions  of the upcoming   workouts   with control of  increasing SmO2  and  tHb.
It will take often  about  5 - 10 min    till we reach a  common level  or a "plateau"
  Set  1.  Motion   till we reach  a  low SmO2  and than hold  the SmO2  for  5 seconds  low  by keeping going.
  The time  I like to reach  the low  SmO2  is  in  10 - 15  seconds  from the start.
 Than  rest  and  re oxygenation back  to start level.
  followed  by second Set   same weight    and  goal to reach the same  SmO2 low  level  or lower  and hold  low    level  for 5  seconds.   rest  as before  and  look at time  changes.
  Now  how many sets.
  a)  either  till he  or she can't deoxygenate  anymore down to the same level  or  reoxygenate  back  to the  start level in a decent time.
  Often the sets  will be  achieved  somewhere  around  3 - 8  sets.
  Subjectively : If a client  can reach  10 sets  and still all is well I  increase the weight next  time  so he " fails  somewhere  around 5  sets.

 Why the plateau.
  Experience  and results.
 If  I stop  by   low SmO2  without a plateau  I see  much less progress if any.
  If  I  increase   SmO2 plateau  longer  to  10 - 15  seconds  than this age group has severe   DOMS  for a few days  and  due to the   arthritis   get stiffer in the joint. I like that they can do this workout  2 - 3  times  per week or 1  day work 2  days off.
  Possibly  not optimal for strenght gain   but needed  to maintain ROM in joints.
 If   I deoxygenate  and  keep  ;plateau  for  10 - 15  seconds  I  can do 2  workouts  with   work  3 - 4 days rest for that muscle group  and gain more  performance  .
 Possibly due to the stimulus   the Hypoxia  creates.
  Now this  is all   experience  as   we do not have  any  scientific  studies  done  with hormonal  control and other options.
 BUT  as  NIRS is getting more popular     researcher  try  to  look why this is the case.
  And here a nice  paper    backing our   years  of  ideas up  in 2013 .

Significant Molecular and Systemic Adaptations after Repeated Sprint Training in Hypoxia

  • Raphael Faiss mail,

    Affiliations: ISSUL-Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Switzerland, Institute for research in rehabilitation, SuvaCare Rehabilitation Clinic, Sion, Switzerland, Sport Medicine Unit, SuvaCare Rehabilitation Clinic, Sion, Switzerland

  • Bertrand Léger,

    Affiliation: Institute for research in rehabilitation, SuvaCare Rehabilitation Clinic, Sion, Switzerland

  • Jean-Marc Vesin,

    Affiliation: Applied Signal Processing Group, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland

  • Pierre-Etienne Fournier,

    Affiliation: Sport Medicine Unit, SuvaCare Rehabilitation Clinic, Sion, Switzerland

  • Yan Eggel,

    Affiliation: Sport Medicine Unit, SuvaCare Rehabilitation Clinic, Sion, Switzerland

  • Olivier Dériaz,

    Affiliation: Institute for research in rehabilitation, SuvaCare Rehabilitation Clinic, Sion, Switzerland

  • Grégoire P. Millet

    Affiliation: ISSUL-Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Switzerland

  • Published: Feb 20, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056522

While intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) has been reported to evoke cellular responses via hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) but without substantial performance benefits in endurance athletes, we hypothesized that repeated sprint training in hypoxia could enhance repeated sprint ability (RSA) performed in normoxia via improved glycolysis and O2 utilization. 40 trained subjects completed 8 cycling repeated sprint sessions in hypoxia (RSH, 3000 m) or normoxia (RSN, 485 m). Before (Pre-) and after (Post-) training, muscular levels of selected mRNAs were analyzed from resting muscle biopsies and RSA tested until exhaustion (10-s sprint, work-to-rest ratio 1:2) with muscle perfusion assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy. From Pre- to Post-, the average power output of all sprints in RSA was increased (p<0.01) to the same extent (6% vs 7%, NS) in RSH and in RSN but the number of sprints to exhaustion was increased in RSH (9.4±4.8 vs. 13.0±6.2 sprints, p<0.01) but not in RSN (9.3±4.2 vs. 8.9±3.5). mRNA concentrations of HIF-1α (+55%), carbonic anhydrase III (+35%) and monocarboxylate transporter-4 (+20%) were augmented (p<0.05) whereas mitochondrial transcription factor A (−40%), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (−23%) and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (−36%) were decreased (p<0.01) in RSH only. Besides, the changes in total hemoglobin variations (Δ[tHb]) during sprints throughout RSA test increased to a greater extent (p<0.01) in RSH. Our findings show larger improvement in repeated sprint performance in RSH than in RSN with significant molecular adaptations and larger blood perfusion variations in active muscles.

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