Thanks for the many feed backs on this fascinating topic and the interesting questions on the aerobe and anaerobic discussions.
. Many are from coaches from sports like tennis and team sports.
Not surprising, as it fundamentally changes the way we look at ideas of individual designed trainings.
I may later be back on this development and the way we may depart from all out loads to achieve certain stimmulat5ions to some more targeted stimulation with the same end results but somewhat better control and protection of " side effects' which are more common in all out workouts.
One question was the placement of the second MOXY. If we talk about a non-involved muscle , than this is not optimal. This is why the cook books not work. We have rarely any muscles, which are non-involved so yes much better would be the term less involved muscle.
In a sport like tennis or figure skating , as there where the most feed backs, there are most often all muscles somehow involved in more or less a high intensity workout or race or competition..
So what we look is to have one moxy on a lower body muscle which we assume is heavily involved and one on a upper body muscle which can be as well heavily involved.( Some additional ideas will come later)
In sports , where a big or a great % of total muscles are involved we will see often the dilemma , that the O2 demand, which comes from the high % of the total muscle group involved, is so big , that the delivery has a real problem. But not just the delivery itself , but the priority of the body on where it is absolutely important to supply sufficient O2. This moves us back to our simple idea of the energy hierarchies or pyramid we showed many times.
Vital systems will have always priority and loco motor muscles therefor have to take the first " cut" in O2 supply.
If they still would " steel " O2 from vital systems than we have the different protections ( reflexes ) which will avoid this.
2 of the reactions ( most likely many more ) are nicely traceable with NIRS when we look how they react and therefor create trends in SmO2 and tHb.
1. metaboreflex ( Dempsey et all ) where we have a limitation set by the respiration system and the protection is the vasoconstriction to the locomotor muscles in case O2 is limited in delivery.
The reduction in blood flow will as well reduce the amount of O 2 moving to the loco motor muscles. This is what we see in sports like tennis and figure skating where sometimes suddenly "unexplained " technical mistakes , like not optimal DNA patterns in the motion show up. The respiration or better the diaphram is really the ultimate core muscle and as such in case of overload, the respiration ( O2 in and CO2) out will overrule his duty for core stability and you start loosing efficient technique as the core stability is less vital than the gas exchange.
Contraction of the human diaphragm during rapid
P. W. Hodges *, J. E. Butler, D. K. McKenzie and S. C. Gandevia t
Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Sydney, Australia and *Faculty of Health
Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
1. The response of the diaphragm to the postural perturbation produced by rapid flexion of the
shoulder to a visual stimulus was evaluated in standing subjects. Gastric, oesophageal and
transdiaphragmatic pressures were measured together with intramuscular and oesophageal
recordings of electromyographic activity (EMG) in the diaphragm. To assess the mechanics
of contraction of the diaphragm, dynamic changes in the length of the diaphragm were
measured with ultrasonography.
2. With rapid flexion of the shoulder in response to a visual stimulus, EMG activity in the
costal and crural diaphragm occurred about 20 ms prior to the onset of deltoid EMG. This
anticipatory contraction occurred irrespective of the phase of respiration in which arm
movement began. The onset of diaphragm EMG coincided with that of transversus
3. Gastric and transdiaphragmatic pressures increased in association with the rapid arm
flexion by 13X8 + 1X9 (mean+ S.E.M.) and 13X5 + 1X8 cmH2O, respectively. The increases
occurred 49 + 4 ms after the onset of diaphragm EMG, but preceded the onset of movement
of the limb by 63 + 7 ms.
4. Ultrasonographic measurements revealed that the costal diaphragm shortened and then
lengthened progressively during the increase in transdiaphragmatic pressure.
5. This study provides definitive evidence that the human diaphragm is involved in the control
of postural stability during sudden voluntary movement of the limbs.
Diaphragm Recruitment during Nonrespiratory Activities
FADI AL-BILBEISI and F. DENNIS McCOOL
Departments of Medicine, Brown University Medical School, and Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island, Pawtucket, Rhode Island
There are many more great studies on the core involvement of the diaphragm and it throws the interesting discussion out , how smart it is to train the rectus abdominals so hard, when he has no actual function in the core stability at all. Another interesting classical idea which may have to be reviewed once in a while.
Now id we unload respiratory work than we will have an improvement of oxygenation in the loco motor muscles.
So what we can do is to fix the second moxy on a movement but as well respiratory involved muscle under heavy load. One of the possible location is the upper trapezius muscle or the sternocleidomastoid.
They are involved in upper body movement but as well in extreme inspiratory work as so called auxiliary muscles. So that could be a possible location for the second moxy as we have no additional feedback on possible respiratory limitations.
There are great studies done with unloading respiratory work and they indicate due to the result that respiration can be a potential limiter even in healthy people.
Here one of the studies I like to read.
Thorax. 2008 Oct;63(10):910-5. doi: 10.1136/thx.2007.090167. Epub 2008 May 20.
Respiratory muscle unloading improves leg muscle oxygenation during exercise in patients with COPD.
Borghi-Silva A1, Oliveira CC, Carrascosa C, Maia J, Berton DC, Queiroga F Jr, Ferreira EM, Almeida DR, Nery LE, Neder JA.
- 1Pulmonary Function and Clinical Exercise Physiology Unit, Division of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil.
Respiratory muscle unloading during exercise could improve locomotor muscle oxygenation by increasing oxygen delivery (higher cardiac output and/or arterial oxygen content) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Sixteen non-hypoxaemic men (forced expiratory volume in 1 s 42.2 (13.9)% predicted) undertook, on different days, two constant work rate (70-80% peak) exercise tests receiving proportional assisted ventilation (PAV) or sham ventilation. Relative changes (Delta%) in deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb), oxyhaemoglobin (O(2)Hb), tissue oxygenation index (TOI) and total haemoglobin (Hb(tot)) in the vastus lateralis muscle were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. In order to estimate oxygen delivery (Do(2)est, l/min), cardiac output and oxygen saturation (Spo(2)) were continuously monitored by impedance cardiography and pulse oximetry, respectively.
Exercise tolerance (Tlim) and oxygen uptake were increased with PAV compared with sham ventilation. In contrast, end-exercise blood lactate/Tlim and leg effort/Tlim ratios were lower with PAV (p<0.05). There were no between-treatment differences in cardiac output and Spo(2) either at submaximal exercise or at Tlim (ie, Do(2)est remained unchanged with PAV; p>0.05). Leg muscle oxygenation, however, was significantly enhanced with PAV as the exercise-related decrease in Delta(O(2)Hb)% was lessened and TOI was improved; moreover, Delta(Hb(tot))%, an index of local blood volume, was increased compared with sham ventilation (p<0.01).
Respiratory muscle unloading during high-intensity exercise can improve peripheral muscle oxygenation despite unaltered systemic Do(2 )in patients with advanced COPD. These findings might indicate that a fraction of the available cardiac output had been redirected from ventilatory to appendicular muscles as a consequence of respiratory muscle unloading.
I will be back showing you omr the discuss triple wingate some additional thoughts and how the delivery can come withing the locomoror system if ddelivery from the " outside" is inefficient or blocked.