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Development Team Member
Posts: 59

I've never got a very satisfactory answer about how
training duration and intensity were determined in
traditional training.

It seems that a lot of things that we are doing
are by trial and error, copying what other people
are doing, the fact that we have ten fingers (and 
can easily count to multiples of five), the fact
that running track is 400m long and 100m is
marked very clearly, swimming pool is 50m
long, etc.

I never got an explanation why we are doing a 
2hr long run as opposed to 1hr39min or why
we do 5x8' intervals as oppose to 9 x 4'27"
and why one might be better than the other.
And so on. Sure, there have been empirical
studies where they may or my have not shown
that one approach produced better result
(on average for a particular group of people)
and people that latch onto that result (until it
is (dis)proved by another study).
But there's little or no explanation or guidance 
about how duration, intensity, number of repetitions
are chosen other than by trial and error.

Some athletes (most notably African runners) go
mostly by feel and decide duration, intensity and 
frequency by how their body feels. This seems less
arbitrary than western approach (with rigid durations,
distances and number of reps), but not everybody
has the ability feel the body. Plus "feeling" can often
be deceiving. I often had good races when I was feeling
slow and tired before the race and vice versa. 

NIRS gives an opportunity to change this. However,
what's still lacking is better guidelines or ideas for
how to use it effectively.

Do you stay in fully oxygenated zone until you start
seeing "fatigue" (whatever that means) and then you
finish your training? Or do you have some predetermined
time/distance in mind and you stop then (even though
NIRS is indicating you haven't hit your limiter yet)?
Do you do intervals until you can't push/recover SmO2

These are rhetorical questions as coaches and athletes 
probably need to figure it out for themselves (since now
every athlete will respond differently to training stimuli).

However, there is very little practical information beyond
"figure it out", "your coach should figure it out", "use NIRS
to monitor what you are doing", "stimulate X and Y", etc.
Grossly simplifying, this almost amounts to every user/athlete
reinventing the wheel. 

I was involved in a paradigm shift in another field and there
was ignorance at first ("interesting idea, but so what?") then
resistance ("too slow", "not practical", "that's not how we
are used to doing it", "nobody else is doing this",
"too complicated", etc.). After several years of tutorials, 
practical examples, and *demonstrating* that with the new
approach you can do things easier and faster, people were
finally convinced and embraced the new approach which 
is now ubiquitous.

There's really no question in this post just thinking outloud.


Development Team Member
Posts: 1,501
Great summary on real world application in training the  10  fingers sounds  familiar  (  smile ). Feeling  sounds  familiar as well and I  had  the privilege  to  work and see observe a few  years  how   Kenyan runners  are training. I was even running   (  surviving )  with a  person  like Mike Boit or  Julius  Kariuki.
Now  the first  real  exercise  physiologist  and his  training  guide  was really  Lamarck see at the end.
This  gives  you the answer  as  we  only like to  give here  interpretations  of  NIRS  signals. So  here the simple  answer. Duration  numbers  of  reps  in
a workout   length of  rest in between  reps  and  rest in between  training  units  is given by the physiological feedback  of  your   body.
So  you set a  specific   goal  or a general goal
. Specific goal. I  like to  overload  my respiratory system without  stressing  other systems or only minimal.
General goal . I like to stress the  full team  and know , that  the limiter will be overloaded  first  and  if  duration is long enough  all  possible  compensator will be overloaded.

So  once  you have your goal   you decide  for exampel in the specific  goal ( respiration ) how  far  you may like to overload  or  loose  performance.
Remember  : Training  doe never make you better  so as better  your training  workout  as  worse  you will be.
So in our  respiration  example.
 What  do  you like to  stress.   example :  intermuscular coordination  or for example  costovertebral  mobilization ?
Lets  go  with inter muscular coordination.
So   now  you have to set a  plan.
- by what  TV  ( tidal volume )  do you have the best intermuscular coordination.
Now  do you like to  work on duration  on this  goal  or  do you like to  work  on   intermuscular coordination on a  different TV  for  exampel  the TV  you often see and have  during a  race ? You may be able  to easy have a perfect  intermuscular  coordination by a TV  of  2.3  but in  your event   let's say   Badminton you see, that in the   recovery phase  between   plying  you really push a  TV  f  3.3  L  to  try to get rid  of CO2 but   in that TV  our    coordination is terrible and  it  does not allow  for  fast enough  recovery
So  goal . 
Respiration  coordination with a TV  of  3.3  l  or  slightly more.
Average recovery time is  20 -  30 seconds  and  depending on the game duration 50 - 100 times in a  row.
Plan.  " warm up "  respiration  over a  3 x 5 min  optimal coordination   with 2/ 2.5  and 3 l TV
 RF is  free and  all is just  based on  optimal coordination. So  you look  for a perfect  picture.
 . Than  you start  no   time set  you simple  go  till your  optimal  picture   is gone, rest   and repeat  again rest  and repeat again. How  long rest. Till under no stress  you have a perfect picture  than  you  go.
see  example below.

Now  how  long. .
 Easy  remember it is a coordination  training  so  you like to  not have to wait  for  4  -   days  before  you  can do it again like in some strength workouts.
So  you may have a target  of  30 - 45  seconds  optimal  and  you have a  20 -  30  second recovery based on  your game   analyses.
 You repeat  till you either  can not   recovery  in the  rest or  you can not maintain  during the  game  time. Next  day. Either  you do a RRA  ( resting respiratory assessment   in the morning. This may look  great or  fatigued. If  fatigued  you have a rest  day and so on. if  it looks great   you do the  calibration  warm up  as  the day before and look  whether  you  have the same  activity  and coordination. You do the same workout. 
 If   worse  already in the first  load   stop  and rest  another day  if  you are able  to  repeat   than make  another day  rest after this, if  you  are better  keep  going  as well the next  day. You can add a  MOXY on an auxiliary muscle  to look even better,  For  example on the Sterno claido mast. and you can see     how  early and how much  he may be involved. If  you have a SpO2  sensor  or  perhaps a  capno meter  you  can even control the efficiency  off the  coordination. 
That is  the   great   part of  bio feedback  as you know have  great feedback on duration  of   all you look for  and  can plan it specific  for your sport  or  for  health.
I myself  just now  will go  and do a  workout  specif  for  my gluteaus medius, as  he  got  cut of the   bone 9  days  ago  and  reattached in an operation  and I  do a  specific workout  of it  .3  days ago , zero steps  yesterday 3 km  walk  than  failure  so  today   ?   will see. Morning assessment  was  showing  some  " fatigue" as  SmO2  was 30 %  lower than  usual  . So  if    I need a rest  day I will do a  cardiac  workout on the bike  so no need  for   medialis, but  I  can not  go  trough  a certain range  so will have to use   low wattage  100 -  150 watts but  will  try to  get a  maximal  CO  so will have to  do  it different  as by  100 - 150 watts  my  HR is  105  - 110  . SV  is  125 +- 5   whereas I need a  160  HR  SV  130  than  to maintain my  cardiac  muscle. So will have to    " cheat. If  i  can not I will do a  respiratory  load TV 4.4  L  RF  40  = VE ?  and this  is my all out  ability  during  cross country skiing  for my  respiratory system. Duration :To  failure. So different options  and  will take  what ever system is ready to be stressed.

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