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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Congratulation to this group.
 They  found out  that   when testing ice hockey player  off  ice the result  did not reflect the result on the ice.
  What a surprise  and for sure a great  investment  for a study.
  It is very uncommon, that a  cyclist is happy if we test him  with a VO2  equipment on the ice  to design a  training idea  for him on the bike.
 Nevertheless  the majority of  NHL  team hire Ph. D  people  to do  VO2 testing on a bike  to  design or  give any advice  for ice hockey player  on the ice.
 Remember that even 1928 they already understood that when testing it  should be as close as possible to what we  do  in activity.  Or  the  now already to death discussed great work  by dal Monte  from 1967  and VO2  comparisons.
  It is  really hard  to believe, that   lot's of money still is spend on this  myth  when we  can now  live see and test in the sport w without any restriction in respiration with mask  and any time delay of information, why  so many  organizations  still resist this new technology.
 Here  a  flash back you know  by now  . Douglas.jpg

Kajak VO2.jpg
And here the  interesting  study.

On-Ice Testing of Hockey Players Trumps Stationary Bike

Released:4/30/2010 1:00 PM EDT
Source Newsroom:Michigan Technological University

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Newswise — Researchers from Michigan Technological University's Department of Exercise Science, Health and Physical Education compared two methods that pro hockey teams use to evaluate the fitness capacity of potential National Hockey League draft picks: on-ice testing and tests using stationary bicycles.

They found that off-ice testing is not an adequate predictor of on-ice fitness.

The research, co-authored by John Durocher, then of Michigan Tech and now at St. Francis (Pa.) University; undergraduate student Angela Guisfredi; exercise science department chair Jason Carter; and Portage Sports Medicine Institute physician Darin Leetun, was published in January in Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, a bimonthy journal. The researchers focused on using on-ice testing instead of the usual stationary bike regimen.

The project won an award in the University's 2010 Undergraduate Research Expo.

Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Ouch  fast respond on my  email on that one. No  I was  actually studying the paper. Great work solid test results.
 Some  questionable idea on how to find the  possibly not existing lactate threshold  but  when looking at  the VO2  results  very  good work.
  Just surprised , that they  were surprised  about the outcome.
.  Here  the main information  which  shows the end result  nicely.
vo2 on  and off ice.jpg

Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Here  some more  interesting feedbacks.

Research on ice: Tech takes a look at NHL combine test

April 24, 2010
By Brandon Veale - DMG Sports Editor

HOUGHTON - Michigan Technological University has a solid history of scientific accomplishment and a historical pedigree on the hockey rink to match.

But rarely do the two interact more fully than they did in the summer of 2009, as researchers from the university's department of Exercise Science, Health and Physical Education examined one of the most fundamental ways pro teams evaluate the fitness capacity of potential National Hockey League draft picks.

The research, co-authored by John Durocher, then of Michigan Tech, now at St. Francis (Pa.) University, undergraduate student Angela Guisfredi, exercise science department chair Jason Carter and Portage Sports Medicine Institute physician Darin Leetun, was published in January in Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, a bimonthy journal.

Article Photos


Michigan Tech women’s basketball player Angela Guisfredi presents a poster at the Undergraduate Expo earlier this month on the research she collaborated on regarding comparison of on- and off-ice aerobic testing on collegiate hockey players. Guisfredi, a Lake Linden-Hubbell High School alumna, earned a Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship grant to support her work. (DMG photo by Brandon Veale)


He has been a part of several other hockey-related research efforts at Tech, including a study comparing Finlandia University men's and women's hockey players and his doctoral dissertation on aerobic fitness and lactate threshold in collegiate hockey players over the course of a season.

He is now carrying a passion that began very young into a professional career.

"I grew up being a hockey player, played from five years old up until now," Durocher said.

One of the most important factors prospects are tested for at the NHL scouting combine is aerobic capacity, or VO2 max, specifically the maximum capacity one has for transporting and using the oxygen inhaled with each breath.

How about the CO2  exhaled ?

However, the league's standardized test is done by riding an exercise bike. The Michigan Tech group tried to develop a procedure for testing aerobic capacity in a more realistic hockey environment -on the ice.

Great idea

"We just didn't feel that (riding the bike) was a very good evaluation tool," Carter said. "When you're biking, you're using different muscle groups than when you're skating."

Excellent  thinking

One of the biggest challenges of the process was developing a completely new testing procedure.

The participant pool, which included 11 Michigan Tech players and one from Finlandia's men's team, skated from the starting line to a cone 32 meters away and back, paced by background music that included beeps every 10 seconds.

Sounds familiar  as  a beep test ?

In each of four successive trials, the goal cone was moved three meters farther away, requiring each skater to ramp up their speed until they could no longer keep up with the music.

After 80 seconds of skating, each player got a 40-second rest period in which a small blood sample was taken, then analyzed for lactic acid content. While skating, the player wore a portable mask that collects the air the player exhales and measures its oxygen content.

Hmmm what equipment  did  they used to test lactic acid ? And I am wondering, how in the 80 sec   load they where able to  know , that the reading in the finger sample was the  situation in the working muscle.

"You can set up all the equipment in the penalty box and the player basically wears a small harness that records their oxygen consumption levels and the CO2 they're exhaling," Durocher said.

In designing the experiment, the goal is to slowly increase the player's exertion level until reaching the maximum capability of his lungs to process the oxygen being taken in.

Hmmm capacity  limit of the lungs ?  to process  O2 ???

"We had to figure out a way to slowly ramp them up without being too slow or too fast in our ramp-up," Carter said.

As a control, the players were then tested on bikes in a similar way to the conventional NHL combine method.

The research found that VO2 max and lactate levels from on-ice testing were significantly higher than those recorded from the bike.

"To our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate a significantly higher VO2 max on ice compared with off ice. This finding should encourage sport-specific testing of hockey players in the future," according to the article.

Sure, great suggestion

Guisfredi, a member of Michigan Tech's women's basketball team, received a Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship grant from Michigan Tech to devote her summer to the project.

"We always stress academics first and athletics second. I had a lot of fun with it and I think it was special to be able to work on a project like this," Guisfredi said.

She assisted in recruiting subjects, experiment set-up and administering the tests. She also presented a poster on the study at the recent Undergraduate Expo in the Memorial Union Building.

Not only was Guisfredi grateful for an opportunity to combine the classroom learning she acquired in subjects such as bio-statistics with a practical environment, she was able to combine her passion for athletics with the academic field she has chosen to pursue.

"It's part of my everyday life, so it's applicable not only to my study, but also to me personally," she said.

The research combined the efforts of many different groups: trained professors like Durocher and Carter, undergraduates like Guisfredi, physicians like Leetun (and financial backing from the Portage Health Sports Medicine Institute) and even prospective undergraduates like Davy Sproule, currently a Houghton High School senior, who plans on enrolling in Tech's exercise science program in the fall.

"When you take a student and you immerse them into the project, they develop a passion for the research and it becomes a much more valuable experience for them," Carter said.

Durocher, who grew up in Freda, is returning to Michigan Tech to be a research assistant professor in the integrative physiology lab.

"I'm very excited to be coming back," he said.

Northern Michigan University has expressed interest in conducting similar work on its hockey players there. Only one NHL team (the Philadelphia Flyers) currently does on-ice aerobic capacity testing.

Carter said the project was a great way to put the scientific method in action.

"It's one thing to learn about it in a textbook, but it was a whole different experience to get the whole real-life thing," Guisfredi said.

How  true this statement is  and  yes  we should look  at real live  information . Well lactate is  very indirect  and VO2  is  close    to that.  There are options  for real live ( NIRS/MOXY)  and we  even can  test  as many athletes  at the same time as we like,  and without mask  and  problmes  with respiration due to  the equipment.

Brandon Veale can be reached at

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