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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Courtesy  Brian Kozak
 I like to start on the very basic information you can take   with MOXY.
 It  will show you , that of any assessments ( testing ) we do today it is the only one, where we use  actual individual physiological information to find training intensity  zones.
As  discussed  to no end  on here as well, any current testing ideas:
 ( 220 - age HR / VO2  max/ Lactate threshold, FTP  and so on, all find  one  " ultimate point and based on this  single  result they " calculate" or estimate  intensities.
 With  direct noninvasive assessments  tools like  MOXY/NIRS you will have   individual physiological information and based on this we can set up training ideas  and can re assess and see, whether your training ideas suppose to change what the plan was or whether they change  something very different.
 In any case we will have a feedback and learn to understand  what stimuli reacts on an individual person. So let's start with the absolute base line.
 Looking at trends of SmO2 ( Muscle oxygenation trend )
 1. You look at the reaction:
 a) if in most cases  SmO2 is increasing, than we  have this as an indication , that we deliver  more O2  to the  assessed  area, than we actually  use . So delivery is   better  or  more than utilization.
b) If we have a  " flat "  SmO2  than we  have in most cases  a situation, where the amount of O2  we deliver  is the amount of O2  we   utilize for that specific performance.
c)  if we see  the SmO2 trend dropping , than we  have in most cases a situation, where we use more O2  than we can deliver.

#### Yous see the wording  " most cases"
 The advanced  MOXY users  will learn that there are some situations, where this is not   so clear, but we can use  other information's like tHb  to  understand , why it is   different.
 So for the  moment stay with  a, b and c

 Okay here the overview  of SmO2 of this case

You will see 2 SmO2 traces.
 The darker one is the SmO2 trace of the leg of this runner.
 The less ( lighter green ) is the SmO2 trace of a little to non involved muscle in running the trapeze muscle.
g smo2 blank.jpg

 1. Look the darker green only to start out, the trace of this runners leg muscle.
The protocol was a 5/1/5 MOXY base assessment
 Meaning the runner did  2  x  the same load  for  5 min with a 1 min rest in between.
So  start
was  by 60 ( 1 min was  baseline info taken )   so after 60 sec  start for first load  for 5 min  and than  1 min stop followed by a repeat of the same load  followed  by 1 min stop and now  new load  for 5 min 1 min stop and repeat of the same new load   a.s.o You can easy see,  how start  and end  are the areas  where the " homeostasis  is most "interrupted "

Hans Selyes'  GAS ( general adaptation syndrom )
GAS nirs.jpg

 So your job, where would you place  " clear changes" in trace trend of SmO2  of the legs. ?  As  so often there is  not a line, where we shift  but an overlap. Nevertheless make  lines  and see whether we  come to a similar conclusion  so stay tuned.

Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
I hope you  had a chance to  set the individual training zones  for this person. If you have different name that is no problem just  mark the lines, where you think there is a   trend shift in the way the body is creating  energy ( performance ) based on the oxygenation trend.

So once you have the  individual zoning based on SmO2  you can simply start training  according to your believes  what suppose to change  what with the different intensities.
 Now here is the interesting part. There is no research out there , who  can show or proof, whether training  with  4 mmol lactate actually   changes  what or  whether training with 80 % of any max has any  benefit  for a specific    system.
 The only  part we know  is that when most of the people start   working out they will make progress.
No matter what system  they use.
This is the current justification  why we believe Lactate threshold or FTP or what ever works.
 If  we make progress we can hardly argue  against. BUT if  we do not see progress we are in trouble.
 Now with MOXY you can follow your traditional believes  with the   advantage, that  as you re assess you actually can see, what changed  not based on performance but based on the training   idea on how to use O2  for performance.. You can now see, whether you change a delivery problem to a utilization limitation or vica verca  and you now have a feedback what intensity actually triggers  what changes  as you have physiological bio marker , rather than performance based speculations. 

So besides the  SmO2 trend, which we used  first , we  as well can   now look what the HR  did. HR is a  small part of the cardiac hemodynamic  but easy to  use in the field..
 So here the HR information to the SmO2  . Look at the 2  lines  and the circle?
 What do we see and what does this  tell us. ?

Now you have the zoning  and the HR  and  can make some speculation.
 Now HR  resp cardiac output  is  closely linked  to blood flow  so  next up  is that we add  tHb to it.
But first you sort out the HR SmO2   part
g hr  and smo2  disc.jpg

Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530

Thanks for the  e- mailed feed backs.
 I got  6  e mails back with suggestions   on zoning for this case.
 The zoning   was  determent based on the SmO2 trend  from the leg. ( darker green in our graph). The lighter green is a  relative or hopefully non involved muscle in running , which in this case  was a trapeze muscle.
 ( Advanced thinking/ for what and where   do we see potential activities in the upper trapeze muscle  besides the  "emergency  reflex reaction ? )
 So the beauty was that all 6 independent   observations  and ideas ended up with the same zoning idea.
 Here the  feedback.

G smo2 zone.jpg

  One of the discussion we have is the  red area of HII ( high intensity interval )
There is the point we  can argue  about : What is considered high intensity.
a) Do we consider high intensity , if we run in an intensity or bike in an intensity or  in any endurance sport assessment, where it is simply a   out  of balance delivery of  O2. Meaning that we have a steady drop in SmO2  as an indication, that we use  clearly more O2  than we  can delivery over the whole 5 min step length?
b) Is a intensity  where we can sustain a  5 min 1 min rest 5 min duration already considered a high intensity  or is a high intensity , when we fail to finish the step once or  twice.
 So in endurance, that is the big question.

 Remember  the definition of endurance.
Ipahr and ipahd end.jpg  

 Here another training graph  from a case study sent to us Courtesy of MOXY expert Mary Ann Kelly  in California Joshua Tree.
 This highlights the above question.
 The key is less how do we name the zoning's  but rather  the ability to repeat the assessment and see the physiological changes our training idea may have  or may have not created.
The fact is that any current zoning idea has no scientific back up at all, whether it makes the suggested  theoretical progress . \Training 10 people with 70 % of their VO2  max  or  at 4 mmol lactate  threshold  or  at any threshold has no where a back up , that all 10  end with the same physiological adaptation when doing the same workout.
 Now we  do not  claim, that when you train in  the above zoning you have the same end result.
 What we use the zoning for is  to be used in  or on an individual base , loaded  at specific zones we  found  an than retest and reassess to see, what this intensity ( zone ) has changed in the physiological reaction of delivery  and or utilization and whether we  can find the limiter  and the compensator now again.
 So here  a " zoning, where we  would use the argument, that HII is  when you can't sustain it over  a full 5 min step   2  times in a row.

So here for you to create  zoning's.
 It is a  5/1/5 test but here it is  with  the moxy's on left and right leg to compare  symmetrical reactions.
smo2 both no z.jpg 

Instead of sending me emails sent the  discussion on the  options in Zoning to the forum here.

Last section here for the advanced  MOXY user groups.
 Here the case we discuss above  and where we have the ZONING.
 SmO2  is the result of the information of  loaded  Hb Mb ( oxygenated ) as a % of the total Hb and Mb )
 So if we look this  in the way of  how the trend is  between HHb ( deoxygenated  Hb Mb )  and  O2Hb /Mb ) than  we have an  other interesting  feedback.
 tHb SmO2  and HHb O2 Hb are really all related  and over time you can see the trend of all  even if you see only one trace..
If  we now  bias O2Hb and HHb , meaning we  do not have an absolute number, but we argue we just are interested  at the start of the assessment how  O2Hb and HHb react against each other  by  bias  both to zero  at the start  and than can see from this moment, whether we increase O2 or decrease O2  relative to the start situation. Or in other words. do we simply load  /deliver a lot of O2  but never  drop below the start ratio or do we   not deliver enough  and form the start situation on simply always  are  lower in O2  content.
 So the case above in this  idea. here  plus adding " zoning " based on this O2hb HHb trends.
g bias  hhb o2 hb leg.jpg 

  This is the bias leg reaction Make the zoning based on this.

 And here just for fun the potentially non involved trapeze  muscle bias.

g bias arm.jpg 
as you can see a very different picture  when looking the trend form the start  and the start is considered zero.
 I added the tHb  as an indication of blood flow to this biased  information.
 There is a very interesting reason why.
 look at carefully  at the    1 min rest reactions.
 The one minute rest reaction often tell at least as much   when not even more on the  physiological reactions.
 Remember  we stop  suddenly  and therefor eliminate  suddenly  O2  demand  from the working muscle. We as well eliminate suddenly the  muscular mechanical compression reaction.
. So physical reactions   have an immediate feedback  result.
 Physiological reactions often  follow  with a time lag.
 Example is  CO  or  for  us easy to assess HR. Same  is with VE  or for us  easy to assess RF
 The difference  between  an immediate feedback  and the delayed  physiological feedback is  often a  big information source on the individuals   physiological  ability.
 The same is when we after 1 min start suddenly again. We  suddenly compress  and we  suddenly demand more  energy as the muscle activity is involved  again , but we deal again with the physiological lag time  of many systems  ( CO ( HR /SV )  VE  RF/TV ) CO2  reaction (   / O2  disscurve)  and  all the vasodilatation and vasoconstriction reactions caused  by  physical and  physiological   inputs.
 What looks complex  is  when using MOXY  after a while a  big  information source  as we combine all the different systems   and how they interact.


Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Okay as we are already  practicing , Here a case  study I just got sent in to review  the " zoning"  here the SmO2 trend as the basic  idea . Dark green leg  muscle  light green delta muscle test is a 5/1/5  bike test on a compu trainer.
smo2  a leg b.jpg

Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530

Some interesting  and great feed backs but not a lot.
 Involved  and not involved.
 One of the questions was the basic  behind this idea.
 In  short:
 Central  or what we name extended central governor idea.
 Your body has a limited amount  of  energy  O2  available  and it will get to a priority list.
 At the intensity , where pO2  (  or ATP ) levels are getting down to a critical level  for survival the idea  starts , that we not  anymore try to create  more ATP  or look for more O2  but rather  try to avoid  dropping further in ATP  or  restrict the O2 use in  non vital areas.
 So Vital organs maintain a proper needed  pO2  and ATP level  and  the  non vital areas  will have to drop the O2  demand  or ATP  use.
 Result is a reduction in  motor unit recruitment  / vasoconstriction to  non vital  areas.
 The last resource   in a  athlete is the ability  ( as well due to  maintenance of BP  to  reduce blood flow  and O2  supply in muscle groups  not  involved in the current activity.
 So in running that is easier  but in sports  like cross country skiing this is much harder . Nevertheless  it will happen  and in this runners  or this bike example we have, you can see, the  reduction in  SmO2  ( The SmO2  drops  not due to utilization of  O2  as we  do not change the activity level but due to not delivering O2 in the non involved area.
 The additional vasoconstriction ( drop in tHb )  is an additional help to  reduce blood flow  and therefor O2  to the  non involved area.
 Here is a closer look   Pic  one is  the tHb ( Blood flow reaction in this case study  at the start of the  assessment so very low intensity
  g thb close  start.jpg

Now here  the  tHb trend  at the end of the assessment, where there  are some challenges   to compete  for O2  and   therefor as well for tHb

g thb end close.jpg

The advanced  MOXY  coach  will see one very interesting behavior  even in this  small changes in the light  brown tHb ( trapeze) muscle. ?????  The following closer look  at Biased info  will show you what I mean!!!
g bais arm close.jpg

We will look this idea live  during our MOXY seminars. We  hope to give you some feedback  from our next one    from California  Red Bull high performance center.

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