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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Many readers may have already got the message.
 MOXY  resp. NIRS  may open a very new capture in practical application and the way we look ate workouts , intensity duration and for sure outcome.
One of the major problems in coaching is the big gap between practical application the coach has to find and work with and the disconnection with many great research ideas. Over 30 years reality checking tells me, that NIRS is used in many great studies but the overlapping from research to coaching is as in many other areas still really so big, that many athletes  simply only delivery results for some studies and  publication  and never get any real feedback or  help from this information, and if, than often of very limited use. That's why ideas like 220 - age are so successful even though  we all agree, that it is not applicable over  different sports nor even intraindividual  in different sports. Nevertheless it is used and " recommended " even in  hospitals and cardiac rehab  , n tests like the Well know Bruce protocol  but as well  many calculations and intensity zones suggestion are based on this formula. It is the simplicity which makes  an idea that great.
 Other great and successful ideas are FTP ( Functional threshold power ) simple  and people  can understand the concept and  can read actual numbers out as they go along.
The key and the success in integrating MOXY (NIRS) in the grass root athlete , in fitness centers and in testing centers is, to give the message , that it is very easy to understand, once we can get our head into the  fact, that all what we do in training and racing depends on the efficiency to deliver the needed energy.
 The simplistic  idea of either working aerob or anaerob is  simple and not really what happens , but it makes understanding of  workouts easier to  handle.
 O2  is a great and nearly limitless energy source. Anaerobic energy sources have a time limitation. As such it seems to be an easy concept to try to plan workouts on the idea, that we either try to deliver the energy O2 dependent or O2 independent.
 Glucose or carbohydrate  as a simple way have the interesting ability to  be used in both options..
 What does this has to do with MOXY.

O2Diss. curve is strongly influenced by this energy source.
 As such  we have a situation, where carbohydrate stimulates respiration either over the higher  production of CO2 than for example fat  and if O2 independent use we have CO2 plus the  H + increase, which again will influence the respiration.
 What we like to see is, whether  a carb free diet and a carbloaded diet  has a direct influence on the ability to desaturation differently.
 What we see in just a few  tests we did is that people with a respiratory limitation show a very different deoxygenation pattern ( SmO2 trend ) than people , who can actually play with their respiratory pattern due to a very string trained respiratory system,
 COPD people dent to do better ion a diet low  on carb and richer on health fats.
 When we look after about 3 - 6 month on COPD people on a respiratory training program ( Interval endurance type of a workout ) than they suddenly  have less of a problem when taking carbs in.
 The question will be how this looks on people in sport and during activities.
 As such you can see, that we have much more questions than answers.
 With the soon announced  launch of the MOXY , we hope to have open minded users, who will help us to improve the use and the opportunities we will have with MOXY.
 We hope we showed  over the last few month how open we are and that we love to share ideas and info's, even with the risk that we  may be proven wrong.
 In Canada we launch the official introduction on how to use and where we would love to get help  MOXY tour  this weekend.
 Brian Kozak from Next level is touring  the major cities and  ice hockey schools and team in Canada and will introduce  MOXY  and Spiro Tiger  as a great step forward of testing ice hockey player sport specific on the ice with skates on and not on a treadmill or bike.
 Hundreds of tests done over the last year  moves Brian to the top f the list of people  who use MOXY  for practical applications.
 We will show you over the next few weeks some very interesting data's with some great answers but as well some or  better a lot of open questions.
 Stay tuned for more announcements on this website, but as well in Canada  on info's on the website as well as in Europe   with  the opening of the info and schooling center in Switzerland.
So far thanks for  all the great and open mails , as well as feed backs on here and we hope to create an ongoing open dialog , so that everybody can use and understand and integrate some new ideas into  an existing  system based on classical testing and often  many years of experience.

Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Carbohydrate and lactate.
There was a clear indication, that when we look at carbohydrates and SmO2 , that we have to look at the old question of carbohydrate and lactate.
I will show tomorrow some nice studies from the late 1980.
It was the time , when Brooks indicated  some first critical ideas on lactate. Lactate rather an energy source than the reason of fatigue. This lead to one of our first ideas on using lactate more as a trend information  , than as absolute numbers ( 2 and 4 mmol ).
 And as such as well more as a bio marker on metabolic options  ( O2 dependent / aerob ) versus more involvement of O2 independent  ( anaerob ).
 Some of the older readers may remember the lactate balance point idea  and the  controversy we sparked with it.
In that same time  we where lucky with contacts we had over a German company ( Boerhinger Mannheim ) which developed the first POC lactate analyzer ( Accusport ). FaCT-Canada introduced this equipment in the Northamerican market and than followed up with a very nice development from a Japanese company Arkray with the now ell know lactate Pro.
 I remember the time, where nearly every single mail basically attacked the accuracy of the lactate Pro. 2 reasons. :  a)Fear ??? that now the  athlete on the road was able to use  lactate testing in the field and would not show up anymore in test facility.

b) scepsis and possibly some other reason , why a 400 & equipment would be able to compete with the accuracy of a great lab equipment like YSI and others.
 This  idea is still existing today in some groups of coaches and centers.
 Reality proofed different and the lactate Pro is today fully validated and accepted in much more important area like  Emergency situations ( Sepsis ) to actually save life, which seems somewhat more important than looking at some non existing 2 and 4 mmol values.
The release of MOXY into the sport, coaching and testing field is possibly a mirror of what we move through with  lactate.
 We now have a tool available for below 1000 $   which will not replace but enhance great equipment used in test centers like the Portamon.
 The fear that people would use lactate  and not show up in test center was completely wrong, in fact it enhanced many test centers ability to add to their already existing tools and information an additional bio marker.
 The same will be the case with MOXY. Test centers will be able to start out with MOXY and will fast and easy learn the benefits of NIRS  and its value to add to their existing tool box.
 The next step than will be to add a portamon to the tool box and MOXY will move into the field in combination with HR , Wattage , Cadence and more.
 You have now with different watches the option to pick up MOXY signals ( SmO2 ) and you know can use wattage as a performance value to the SMo2 as a physiological information and you can now understand in trainings but as well during races, why you are or why you where not able to maintain and or reach the planned Wattage. This will enhance your   ability to load but as well to  know , when to recover.

We are just at the state of a huge ability to develop more interesting workouts and we will be able to understand more , why one specific load works well with one of the athletes and has a very different outcome with  another athlete.
 The key word again and again is :
 Energy delivery, and production and demand and this in combination with the bio availability of O23. SmO2 ( Moxy ) is this missing window to see, whether you are able to access the O2 you deliver , how much you use it, and when you stop the use of O2 and move into the O2 independent energy supply.
 Many open questions will be answered and in that step will open  many more  interesting questions.
In contrary to some believes: MOXY and other tools like Physio Flow and VO2  and more information do  not  at all take the guesswork out of planning and training , it is the opposite, it adds more to the guess work and enhances the activity of the brain to be involved in testing , assessment and planning as well as in training.
 The only concepts , where  guesswork is taken out are ideas like 220 - age, Maximal HR testing , maximal wattage testing , FTP ideas and so on.
 Here you test for some clear end result . That's it , the rest is mathematical calculations.
 The other interesting difference will be, that during training ideas with the new tools you will have to work with your brain and be involved in what you see and how you react.
 This would be pretty much work against many new and fun ideas of high tech workouts , where you dream being in a tour de France stage race and where due to the excitement you may completely forget the task at hand for your physiological workout. nevertheless the public will jump on ideas like that as fun has to be involved in training and if are not " dead" at the end you simply did not worked out.
 Boot camps , though mothers, ,  cross training and so on are nice examples of the idea , what " fitness" seems to have to be.

In this type of workouts the guesswork is gone , as it is all or nothing. One interesting comment on this was  an interesting documentary lately shown on CBC. Rhabdomyelosis increase in the time between New year and January ?
  Why ??
 Stay tuned for some critical  thoughts on carbs and lactate .
Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
A few questions:
1. What is the physiological respond, when Carbs are used for energy supply in a higher amount ?
2. What could be the reaction of the above answer , when looking at respiration.?
3. What consequences would a respiratory situation in an athlete have, if respiration would be a limiter , and what if it would be a compensator.
4. How would we expect the trends of lactate to be and the trends in SmO2.
This and many more questions are very common and with MOXY we see many of this questions leading us towards a very different answer, than what we had prior to the  direct information's we see now.

Can you imagine running , biking , cross country skiing or  overall fitness activities and now you suddenly can see , what is going on in your energy supply department.. Combine this with other bio markers and you may have  some very interesting answers to some of your very personal questions.
 Can you imagine in sports like rowing , where in the past the boat had to move towards the dock and now lactate was taken. Now you simply look at your wrist and you can give the info over earpiece and  speaker to your coach following you with the  motor boat. Can you imagine the picture we had 15 years back when we tested  20 - 30 people in Silver star on snow with the lactate plus, always looking for a hut or warm enough moments, including a bloody mess in the gloves.
 Now you ski with your clients and or  the athletes ski by and  tell you live , where and what happens in their energy supply department. Can you imagine having 10 athletes in an interval session together but not all go your 10 finger repetition schedule nor do they all go all the way up the hill. All train together but each has his individual  program based on his bodies physiological respond paired with the trainer ( coaches) goal  of this specific session.
  Can you imagine  doing a technical cross country ski session and you actually know, when the main muscles may start to loos some efficiency and you may shift to helper muscles and as such may not have anymore an efficient goal setting in your technical session.
 Sent in more of this questions and we see, how we all together can start to design interesting ideas, for all the MOXY users out there.
Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Remember the guess work ?
 here an example, why we have some different ideas and this is a great example , where your guess work is limited to  the single question :
 Is your age in your passport identical with your physiological age. Than  after that your training plan is ready to roll.

Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Training

Learning the difference between anaerobic and aerobic training is the key to improving your personal best in any race. Training and racing at the appropriate levels is the single most important change in your training that you can make. Understanding what each of these terms mean is the first step in that transformation.

At the heart of aerobic and anaerobic training is the scientific fact that to exercise, your body needs to break down sugar and convert it to glycogen so it can be used as energy or fuel. When the body has an adequate supply of oxygen for this process, we call it aerobic respiration. When there is not enough oxygen, like when you are running hard at the end of a 5k, this is called anaerobic respiration.

What is aerobic running

Aerobic running or respiration occurs when your body has sufficient oxygen – like when you run easy miles with you friends. You breathe in, the body efficiently uses all the oxygen it needs to power the muscles, and you exhale. Basically, when you are “running aerobically”, your muscles have enough oxygen to produce all the energy they need to perform.

The waste products of aerobic respiration are carbon dioxide and water. These byproducts are easily expelled through the simple act of breathing. This is why your breath is carbon dioxide rich and moist.

What is anaerobic running

Anaerobic respiration happens when there is NOT sufficient oxygen present.

In this instance, the muscles do not have enough oxygen to create the energy you are demanding from them (like in an all-out sprint at the finish). When this happens the muscles begin to break down sugar, but instead of producing CO2 and water, it produces lactic acid (that burning feeling in your muscles at the end of a race). Unfortunately, lactic acid is harder to clear than water and CO2. Thus, lactic acid accumulates in your system, causing extreme fatigue.

Why knowing the difference between aerobic and anaerobic is crucial for runners

The importance of understanding these definitions is clear. If you begin to run too hard in the middle of a workout or the start of a race, your body goes into an anaerobic state, producing lactic acid. If you “go anaerobic” early in a race, you will begin to feel fatigued sooner and become increasingly tired as the race progresses. The accumulation of lactic acid pools in your muscles and you have to slow dramatically to get back to an aerobic state. Your PR is out the window and finished before that race is half way over.

For those running the marathon, learning the difference between aerobic running and anaerobic running is even more critical. The faster you run the more energy you burn – just like a car burning fuel on a highway. During the marathon, you need to conserve as much fuel as possible, so if you run faster than your aerobic threshold (the point at which you go from running 100% aerobically to producing lactic acid) you will burn through your fuel stores faster and more than likely bonk before you finish.

How to learn to run aerobically when you need to

Learning to establish and feel your anaerobic and aerobic pace is a really important skill if you want to start racing faster. Here are the stats on the importance of aerobic running.

The easiest way to test whether you’re running aerobically is to perform what is called the “talk test”. While running, try to speak to someone (or yourself if alone) out-loud. If you can get out a short paragraph without too much trouble (i.e. you can convey a detailed thought, but you’re not quoting Shakespeare) you’re running aerobically. If you can only get out one sentence before you start grasping for breath, you’re running too hard – slow down.

For a more scientific assessment, you can use a heart rate monitor to determine your effort level. We’ve made it easy to determine your aerobic heart rate training zone with our heart rate training calculator. Simply input your age and resting heart rate and you can see exactly what numbers you should target.

If you have questions about what your “aerobic” and “anaerobic” pace is, or how to practice feeling it, please don’t hesitate to leave a comment, I respond to all questions.

 Well one of the questions would be. If you go : "anaerobic" could it be that certain muscles still may burn glucose aerobic. If yes  what happens with that CO2 .  What happens with the "anaerobic " waste product , besides the NON waste product lactate.
 Could it be that besides getting ride of CO2 we may still need the respiratory system to get rid of some other  more CO2 ?

Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
To be fair, the above article can be found in many or on many websites and we all read it  without thinking too much.
 Now here a very nice article..
 The question we would ask than is : How do I know , whether my load may now be real  "anaerobic"
 Brian Kozak , who works with ice hockey players ahs a very nice testing system IPAHR , where we now can see, how long an  athlete actually goes " aerobic " and than how long he may be able to maintain an anaerobic load.
 We use SmO2 and  look at the  trend.
 As long we see SmO2 dropping we see O2 Hb dropping and HHb increasing , meaning we still use O2  for energy supply as well. Once we hit the bottom of the individual SmO2  curve and can keep it there flat we will see, that despite  still O2 in the  muscle , we can't make it anymore bioavailable ( different reasons ) and now we see a stable O2 Hb  and a stable HHb as a sign of no further ability to use the existing O2.
Than there is an interesting trend , when the " anaerobic " systems  Creatine phosphate and possibly ATP hit a critical low level. Despite an ongoing effort ( mentally ) we can see a reduction in SEMG activity as well as an increase in SmO2.
This creates  Gladdens  question , whether the body may try to avoid  using  more ATP ?
 NIRS may be handy for workouts like that ?

Adding anaerobic training to your regimen will increase speed and power while keeping you healthy.

Some runners have funny ideas about the meaning of the word “anaerobic”. It’s not their fault, though, because even many exercise physiologists harbor an outdated understanding of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Often I hear athletes talk about “going anaerobic” when their running intensity exceeds the anaerobic or lactate threshold, which is a moderately high but not extremely high intensity—one that most fit individuals can sustain for a full hour. This expression—“going anaerobic”—reflects an incorrect belief that the working muscles get their energy either entirely aerobically or entirely anaerobically, whereas in fact they almost always get their energy from both systems simultaneously, with the balance shifting gradually from aerobic toward anaerobic as exercise intensity increases. And indeed, exercise intensity must increase far above the lactate threshold before the muscles even get a majority of their energy anaerobically. If you were to run as far as you could in two minutes (in other words, as hard as you could for two minutes), your muscles would get about half of their energy aerobically during that effort.

More from–Seven Ways To Improve Speed Without Increasing Mileage

This much is understood by most exercise scientists. But what all too many of these professionals don’t know is that most of what is classified as anaerobic metabolism is actually just incomplete aerobic metabolism. Recent research has shown that roughly 75 percent of the lactate that is produced through the anaerobic breakdown of glucose is further broken down aerobically within the muscles cells to release energy. The rest is shuttled to other organs and tissues, where it is either broken down aerobically to supply energy or converted back into glucose for future aerobic breakdown.

If anaerobic glycolysis is reclassified as incomplete aerobic glycolysis, as it should be, then virtually the only truly anaerobic metabolism that occurs in the muscles is the breakdown of high-energy phosphates. This type of metabolism becomes predominant only at the very highest exercise intensities, such as during 100-meter sprints.

While true anaerobic metabolism has only a tiny place in running, anaerobic fitness—or speed and power—is critical to distance running performance. The average runner thinks of factors such as VO2max, fat-burning capacity and running economy as being the keys to running performance and tends to forget about pure speed. But if you set aside your prejudices and look at the speed of world-class distance runners, you will see that pure speed is at least as important as the other performance keys. Most 2:11 marathoners are capable of running a sub-50-second 400m. Folks, that is flying!

Research confirms the importance of pure speed to distance running performance. A study by Finnish researchers found that 20m sprint times were nearly as powerful a predictor of 5,000m race times as VO2max. Studies by the same group have demonstrated that explosive power training effectively improves distance-running performance.

It may seem strange that anaerobic training enhances distance-running performance when there is virtually no anaerobic component to actual distance racing, but it’s true. The primary reason appears to be that anaerobic training increases the bounciness of the stride, so that the feet come off the ground faster and more forcefully. This improves running economy, because half of the energy that propels forward motion during running is supplied not by the body but by the force of impact, and the less time the feet are in contact with the ground, the less of that free energy is lost.

In short, for runners the point of performing types of training that involve anaerobic metabolism is not to developing anaerobic metabolic capacity but rather to increase the speed and power characteristics of the muscle fibers.

Therefore, true anaerobic efforts deserve a bigger place in your training than they have in your races. There are three specific types of anaerobic training that you should be sure to include in your training regimen: sprints, plyometrics and weightlifting.

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