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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Here an interesting article from the moxy tweet area :

Look at  the end some open questions and possibilities MOXY just may offer to this ongoing discussion.
 It is a nice article  but as well   many readers may discuss many points made in there .

Chiefly, the body uses the aerobic energy system for physical activities, sports or otherwise. This energy source uses oxygen that is carried by the respiratory and circulatory systems. The second, and less utilized, energy source uses anaerobic power stored in muscles, accessed without oxygen, and utilized by both the phosphogen and lactic acid systems. It is this second anaerobic system that provides triathletes with the force needed to set them apart from their competitors.

In humans, anaerobic power is only available as short bursts of energy for no more than around two minutes. It is utilized when the body is being pushed as hard as possible. For triathletes, this might translate as a final sprint, a push on the bicycle, or a last effort in swimming. With the correct training, anaerobic power capacity can be increased to improve athletic performance.

The Science Behind Anaerobic Power

Anaerobic power is stored in the muscle tissue in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This store only provides a burst of around one to four seconds of energy, after which the phosphate creatine (PC) system is used to create additional ATP to last for up to 20 seconds for well-trained athletes. After both of these supplies are diminished, the lactic acid (or glycosis) system begins to break down carbohydrates for more energy.

When lactate stores are also used up, an athlete becomes unable to continue accessing the anaerobic energy sources until stores are replenished. The amount of time this takes depends on training. For untrained and moderately-trained individuals, it may take a long time for stores to be restored, while for athletes who have worked on building up their anaerobic abilities, they can be refreshed in as little as one or two minutes.

Anaerobic Power Training

Discovering current anaerobic capacity can help athletes to devise a training plan for further power development. One of the best ways to do this is through a Wingate Test, as the test does not require the use of a sports lab and can be completed sprinting, swimming, cycling or any other activity that allows the athlete to exert full force. The test should be conducted every few months to allow for changes in the athletes abilities during this time, and in order to constantly develop the best possible training regime for the individual's need.

Some athletes are initially opposed to working on improving anaerobic power due to the myth that lactate is responsible for fatigue, post workout pain, and other negative side effects.

For example, anaerobic power is especially neglected in cycling, according to Training 4 Cyclists, who claim that around 98% of road cycling is carried out using aerobic metabolism. Even though it’s true that a higher anaerobic threshold and VO2max are critical to improving endurance performance, many races hinge on instances where a brief anaerobic power burst can make all the difference.

When cycling, triathletes often employ a power meter to provide accurate pacing control during anaerobic power training. With regard to work out methodology, many triathletes employ interval training or high-intensity interval training (HIIT) regimens to efficiently boost anaerobic power capacity.

Whatever the method, triathletes should incorporate anaerobic power training into their work out plan; it may prove to be the difference between winning and losing.

Here the question to the regular  critical reader.
2 athletes. both push the same Wingate results in wattage,  same weight same age all the same.
 Does a Wingate really tells us, which one has more aerobic or better in this case anaerobic power ?
 As the article mentioned, it is all a question of ATP supply  to full fill the performance task at hands.
 So here 2 different athletes pushing  very hard  like in a Wingate test just slightly different.
 Same wattage  same everything from physical testing ( height weight and so on ) possibly or for us for sure very different physiological situation.
 What  do the picture show.
  NIRS values.
 Green  as usual SmO2 values  and blue in this case is tHb.
  A dropping SmO2  or for people using in a  lab Portamon a dropping TSI % indicates, that the person still is able to use O2.
 From where  he takes it is a question  Hb or Mb ???
 . When SmO2 is "flat " than that indicates , that there is still some O2   in the tested  muscle, but  the bio availability is gone  and the ATP or " anaerobic " energy sources have to come up to  get the task done.
 So the  2 picture show very nicely , which athlete has a great anaerobic  "power" and which one has nearly no anaerobic power.
 Much easier test  but more important you actually have a physiological information rather than a wild guess based on Wingate and wattage as this  is the end result only of a performance but no physiological  answer on how the wattage got produced. ?

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Juerg Feldmann

Fortiori Design LLC
Posts: 1,530
Forgot to add the explanation form teh above author on  " fatigue " and  " anaerobic power .
 Here to enjoy 
" The anaerobic systemcreates energy from stored carbohydrates while producing the by-product lactic acid. This involves a partial breakdown of glucose without oxygen. The athlete is able to utilize this system for short bursts of energy lasting no more than a few minutes before reaching the lactate (anaerobic) threshold. The lactate threshold signifies a high buildup of lactic acid causing muscle pain, a burning sensation, and fatigue "

Now here some  other authors :

Lactate physiology in health and disease

1.   Barrie Phypers, FRCA and

2.   JM Tom Pierce, MRCP FRCA



Lactate and lactic acidosis

Hydrogen ions released from the dissociation of lactic acid can be used in the production of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. Impairment of oxidative pathways during lactate production results in a net gain of H+ and acidosis occurs. (Oxidative phosphorylation during severe exercise prevents acidosis despite massive lactate production.)

Causes of hyperlactaemia considered in terms of increased production and decreased clearance. *There is no evidence that hypoxia is the stimulus of lactate production during vigorous exercise


Metabolic acidosis

Metabolic acidosis is defined as a state of decreased systemic pH resulting from either a primary increase in hydrogen ion (H+) or a reduction in bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentrations. In the acute state, respiratory compensation of acidosis occurs by hyperventilation resulting in a relative reduction in PaCO2. Chronically, renal compensation occurs by means of reabsorption of HCO3.[4]

 Hmmm interesting .

And how about this authors :


 Respiration  and respiratory training, more than just for fun.




: "Because lactate is combusted [metabolized] as an acid (C3H6O3), not an anion (C3H5O3), the combustion of an externally supplied salt of lactic acid, CHO3H5O3- + H+ + 3O2 ¨ 3H2O + 3CO2 effects the removal of the proton taken up during endogenous lactic acid production (Gladden, L. B. and J. W. Yates, J Appl Physiol 54:1254-1260, 1983). A side benefit of alkalizing the plasma


by feeding lactate would be to enhance movement (efflux) of lactic acid from active muscles into plasma, a process which is inhibited by low (relative to muscle) blood pH.




(Brooks, G. A. and D. A. Roth, Med Sci Sports Exerc 21(2):S35-207, 1989; Roth, D. A. and G. A. Brooks, Med Sci Sports Exerc 21(2):S35-206, 1989). Moreover, maintenance of a more normal blood pH during strenuous exercise would decrease the performer's perceived level of exertion. The conversion of lactate to glucose in the liver and kidneys also has alkalizing effects by removing two protons for each glucose molecule formed, 2C3H5O3 + 2H+ ¨ C6H12O6. Thus, whether by oxidation or conversion to glucose, clearance of exogenously supplied lactate lowers the body concentration of H+, raising pH."(22)

 And how about the   basic general question.
 Is the  change in knowledge since 1985 on lactate and "lactic acidosis"  perhaps overlooked or do we simple have a problem to change tradition.
. What about " lactate tolerance training "  Why would we have to "tolerate"  something, when you love it. ????
 What about Wingate test and "anaerobic power" by using just a physical information ( watt/ kG body weight, when perhaps there  just may be a way to actually look physiologically   what is going on ???
 Think MOXY ???

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