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Development Team Member
Posts: 3
I have a high school female athlete and curious on your opinions on what is occurring here.  I am a new user to moxy and recently had an athlete run 6x (500m,300m,200m with 30 sec rest) 3 min rest between sets.  She started with a 2 mile wu and some dynamics and then started the actual workout, finishing with a 2 mile cool down.  It looks like HR maintained consistency throughout but oxygen  depletion was severe by set number 5 and continued into set number 6.
Interested in learning your views and any suggestions you may offer.  I have attached the csv file for further analysis.
6x50030020030secrest 10-1-2015, Heart rate.png

Attached Files
csv 6x500300200repeats10012015.csv (354.13 KB, 11 views)


Development Team Member
Posts: 1,501
Very nice   info  and thanks  so much  to share  this with us. 
First  and foremost .
PLEASE do not take  any  ideas I  write on here as a critic  or  any negative  ideas including  questions  and  possible  feed backs.
 The ultimate idea  for me  is to show you how  I  would use  MOXY feedback  and combining it  with  experience  but as well  critical view  on what we all do in classical  track and field  workouts.

1.  Warm up  and cool  down

 Below is  the overall view of the full workout   warm up  and cool  down  as well as  red  workout.
smo2  thb  explan  wu  cd.jpg 

  What is the goal  of the warm up.  For me  the question  would be  what is the Goal  of the workout  and therefore  I would  design the  warm up of better  preparation  for the workout  based on the goal  of the  workout out.

Example :
 Is the goal  running coordination
is the goal  desaturation  so utilization stimulation
Is the goal maintaining delivery  ability
Is the goal contraction quality  to create a delivery limitation.  
 and  many more goal settings.  Based on this goal settings  you will have  very different   warm up  ideas and strategies.

 As  mentioned  the " warm up "  for me  is rather a preparation  for the  workout  and is  most likely  very different than a  warm up or preparation  for a  race.

So  when we look below  we have  a great " warm up "   when you look  on SmO2  reaction with  a  great  increase to an optimal  "  tank load of  O2. perfect  saturation.
 When we look at  blood flow  you can see  that  somewhat earlier than the end of the  warm up would have been the best  flow ( short before  5400 time  marker)
 But  that is  just  flow  and saturation. Depending on the workout goal    you  may need some   activities  which will reduced   flow  due to the nature  of the activity like perhaps  specific    contraction  and inter  and intramuscular  preparation.  So    sometimes  we may have  to " sacrifice  optimal  flow  and load  because the workout  or the race   has  some specific  needs  for an optimal  coordination pattern. ( like sprints  or jumps. )  As  you can see    goal setting  of the workout is  crucial.
  Same  question on cool   down
 What is the goal  after the actual load. Do you like to balance  H +  situation ,  do you like to  keep running in an overloaded  situation  to  target  active  recovery options. Do you like to deplete  the energy sources  more complete   , do you like to reload the liver  storage  as  fats as possible  due to the training ideas  you may have planned  for tomorrow.  and so on.

 In other words  , the cool down is already a preparation  for the next planned  workout or in a  race  or  event, where you may have  more than  one  race  at the same time.
 Now  I have to  throw  this in here as the " classical ' idea of a  cool down is  to get rid  of lactic  acid.

 Now    and only  IF  we accept the  information we have this days, That lactate is not the reason of  fatigue  and that is in fact a  super valuable  substance as well a  great  energy source , than  the  reason  for cooling  down  to get rid  of a great energy   has to be  reviewed. So we need  another justification of cooling  down.
  You  can see in this case the SmO2  values  and the tHb  values  are nearly in the lowest  stage  even  with  comparison to the hard  loads.
  If this  was the goal  than this was a very successful cool down  to  really stress the systems  once more after all the loads  with a low  blood flow  and a low  saturation.
  If the goal  was  to  try to start a recovery  for the next  planned  workout, than the   cool down was not really achieving  that idea.
 Summary:  Warm up  and cool down  are a part of the training ideas  and daily  goal setting.

Now initial feedback to the load.

I like to  use  Bias  in many cases  You  can easy see that during the  load section  the  recovery  got  less and less.  If that  was the goal great   job. If it was not the goal than  some  questions  open  up.

bias  all.jpg 

 So  here some  questions.
 a) what  is the goal for the workout and for what distance is the athlete training.
b)  what is the athletes  limiter?
c) what  were  the  times  in this  workout. ( Speed )  does the speed  come  close  to the   running distance speed is  it  an over or under speed ?

d)  was the goal a performance assessment   on speed  based than  fix  distances  are great.
 If the speed  has  any physiological   goal setting , than we need  not  any  speed  direction but live feedback on  a  screen.
 So  we use  a WASP   ( Roger  can give  more feedback on this options )in this case  and the coach  will   stop the athletes in his  load , as soon you reach the target  or you loos  the great.

 Last but not least I like to show  how incredible great  and  accurate  MOXY  works .  below a comparison  of  an overlap of the two  500 m loads.

 First  the thB  reaction in the full workout
thb all.jpg

And than  the overlap of   first  and second  500 m load.

overlapp thb 500.jpg 

Dark  is  first  500 m   . I already  did  some  physiological  views  . It looks  that there is a  difference in end  time   and in  quality  of  coordination at the end.
 But  an incredible  even running   technique   when you consider  the    workout.  Was she able  to maintain the  metabolic  trend  as well . see below.

overlap  first  and sec  500.jpg 
Dark green  first  500 m

Summary . 
 Need to know the goal setting of this   workout to  show  how we  would use  and integrate   physiological feed backs  during a  workout.


Development Team Member
Posts: 3
Very interesting insight. Thanks!  I am here to learn so please tell it like it is, don't hold back.[smile]
The warm up has always confused me and if you could point me in the direction of better information on warming up that would be greatly appreciated.  I tend to have her do the same warmup for practices and we shorten the run warmup for race day depending on which race she is running and include accelerations which length and speed is determined by the race distance which normally in the spring will be 800m to 3200m but fall season is the 5k.  The dynamics we do are just for muscle activation, glutes, hamstrings, etc.  But the main purpose of the warmup is just to get the muscles warm and ready to run fast.  On colder days our warmup tends to be a little longer.  Open to any suggestions.  Thanks!
The ultimate goal for the season is to run about 16:10-16:15 for the 5k.  She races very well up to the last 1k and then falls apart.  She tends to go out fast so I believe she needs to be a little more patient in the beginning of the race. 
The purpose of this workout was to run at 5:00 to 5:10 min mile pace and be consistent throughout the 6k as she was focusing on being able to finish the workout.  She took 30 seconds rest between repetitions and 3 minute rest between sets, basically trying to do a broken 1000m.  I wanted to get a base for this workout by running the same pace for the 500m, 300m, and 200m and next time we run this increase the pace for the 300 and 200m so she can adapt to the varying pace of the race which will probably include many surges so she does not get dropped.
We have about 6 weeks until regional and national races start.
Times for 500m  300m  200m:
Rep 1)     1:33     56       35
Rep 2)     1:33     55       36
Rep 3)     1:33     55       36
Rep 4)     1:32     56       37
Rep 5)     1:33     56       37
Rep 6)     1:32     56       30  (which was done all out as she wanted to see what she had left)

Interesting yet confusing is the start of her long run which she did two days after this workout.  Oxygen levels dropped severely at the start of her run.  She did an easy 8 mile run the day following this workout.  The long run was 10.75 miles at approximately 6:50min pace with 4x15sec hills to stress her finishing speed.
She did feel sluggish at the beginning but then felt great. Curious on what happened here at the beginning. 
Run 10-3-2015, Heart rate.png  csv longrun10mi10032015.csv     


Development Team Member
Posts: 1,501
Okay  let's  sort that  out in my  brain.   6  sets  with 3 min rest. In between  so  I  set  was 5oom run 1.32  30 seconds  break  300 m  30 seconds  break  200 m  3 min break,

 Or in the picture.

thb 1  an 4 th overlap.jpg 


Development Team Member
Posts: 3
Yes, the explanation is correct and the picture looks about right.

Development Team Member
Posts: 1,501
Okay  will be  back  with  much more in  depth  views on this.

 Again not a critic , as  I  as well learned  track programming  and in cycling it is not much different.
 It is  all for sure about performance , so training plans  are build on performance ideas.

 The ultimate goal for the season is to run about 16:10-16:15 for the 5k.  She races very well up to the last 1k and then falls apart.  She tends to go out fast so I believe she needs to be a little more patient in the beginning of the race. 
The purpose of this workout was to run at 5:00 to 5:10 min mile pace and be consistent throughout the 6k as she was focusing on being able to finish the workout.  She took 30 seconds rest between repetitions and 3 minute rest between sets, basically trying to do a broken 1000m.  I wanted to get a base for this workout by running the same pace for the 500m, 300m, and 200m and next time we run this increase the pace for the 300 and 200m so she can adapt to the varying pace of the race which will probably include many surges so she does not get dropped.
We have about 6 weeks until regional and national races start.

I hope you see what  mean.  the goal  is a performance  for sure but to plan the performance we use  again performance  ideas. So  why  1'000 m sections  and why  certain  rest periods like 30 seconds  or 3  min. Most of what we do is based on organizational  ideas.  5  x  400 m  as we have  5  fingers  and   they go once around the track. 1 min break because it is  easy to   look at this  information. 5  sets  and so on.
There is  zero  physiological  justification in most of the plans  but they or sure  looks  very organized  and somewhat logic.
 I  run 5'000 m  so I  do a 5  x  10000 m interval . ?
 Here a very short  story  from my olden  days in track and field . A great 800 m runner. Mike Boit  from Kenya  was once in our  training school.
 The story is longer  and I  can tell it later. but  at the end of the story , after we  tried  to convince  him, that he  should  do  for example 4  x 200   loads  as an 800 m runner  or  2  x  400 m    with  30 seconds  brake  and  many more great looking ideas, he  asked or told   us  about the  rational behind this workouts.
 His  simple straight forward.

  comment was.  I am a  800 m runner  and not a 4 x 200 m runner . I ave  never  a chance to stop during the run if I like  to be fast. ????  Or in other words.
 It is NOT the distance    and time  you plan to run over this  distance  who  tells your body how he  shall come up  with this performance  physiologically.
 It is the physiological ability  will decide  what  performance you are able  to show  over the  distance  you have to run.

 So there is a goal  as  a time  idea like we have above   and perhaps a goal on what  to improve physiologically  to see, whether we  can  achieve this  time  goal.
 This is where physiological guided  workouts   can come in.
 With keeping this in mind  we will  go  and have a closer look  what  was  going on  during the above 6 sets 500 300 200 m   workout session.

 I will show  as well form this athlete a  race feedback  and we see how the body reacts under racing  conditions.  Summary. 
The idea is  t  combine classical  and n experience  build   training ideas and  mix  in  physiological    feed backs.
 The  most simple idea is  to  plan  resting  periods   not on time but rather on  physiological feed backs.
 If the goal is  to recover  than the SmO2  will look different , than when you plan is an incomplete recovery. Example in the  color  graph  with  500 m  300  and 200 m . You can see the muscular  blood flow recovery in the 30 seconds  was pretty  much the same.
 The metabolic  recovery  ( SmO2  ) in the 30 seconds  was different. So  same  physical  time  30 seconds , different physiological recovery.!!!

Development Team Member
Posts: 1,501
Okay  back on here  with more  questions  and some  MOXY feedback.
Interval workout  6  sets   and in one  set  we  have  500 300 200 m  reps   so 10000 m  run..
 There is the classical  idea on  using  time and distance  to reach a   5000 m  or  800 m  end time goal.
 There is the physiological  goal  setting to  try to improve , what may limit  for the moment the  dream end  time  in  a  race.

 True  . I  can set  a  time goal  like  2 min  for  800 m  or 15 min  for  5 000 m  . divide the    time  to  smaller metric  section  so   I  can run 100 m in 3 min    which will create  a  5 x 1000m  = 5000 m  end time  of  15  min..
 Than I  can make  even smaller  sections like  200 m  as  in our  case  30 seconds  was the fastest  time   so 15 min   5 000 mm  time is possible    looking  form the  speed ???  In  cycling I use  body  weight  and watt ratio  and so on.
 Now I  start wok ring out with this target.

 Or I  ca  check in a  race  or   even in  a  workout like 500 300 200, what  goes on  and why I  see, that there is no way I  can achieve this goals  .

Here a  race  from this runner.

thb  smo2  race  section.jpg questions  red.jpg

 You can see  at least three interesting reactions during the race.
 ( red circles), She   actually increases  SmO2  despite a  drop in tHB nicely seen  at the end  of the race. So  do we see sixths in a  workout  as well  or  what is the reaction in a workout.

 Here a  interval as we discuss.

thb all.jpg 
Blood flow shows the following. In the  3 min rest she  opens up  all the way back  to the warm  up situation .
 But in the  2ets  after 500 m  300 m the time  does not allow her  to   get free flow  so  she will run into a  delivery limitation. Now perhaps it is only   blood volume but let's  see how it is about  " energy ' or O2 .

bias  all.jpg

You can see, that during the set she as well never  refuels  and even  after 3 min  rest  she  has some  drop in  O2Hb  level, despite a  full recovery of  blood  flow.
 So  in the same amount  of " blood'  she has  less  saturated   Hb   or perhaps  but unlikely  less  saturated Mb.
 Noe this despite  rests.
 So there is a  delivery   limitation in this  speed including a   delivery limitation in blood  flow and in  O2  supply..
Now  before we  go much deeper. the  question is .
 Was that the goal  to create a delivery limitation to improve  utilization or  not.
 Is in a 5000 m  run utilization more important  or the delivery ?

 Now  lets  see as a  500 300 200 is  a short version of  a  5/1/5  so  we  have to look  what caused some of the   reactions and we look  at the  rest period.
 So let's  compare  first and last set  and you decide  what you see.

500  first and last.jpg 

300  first and last.jpg
200 m  first and last.jpg 

Now you  can see  that in nearly  all   but  clearly  one the   reason  for  a lack of  reloading is caused by  what  limitation or  not  using  the optimal ability.
 So it can be a limiter  or it can be  a situation, where the athlete is not aware that she does not use the full  ability of that  physiological system. 
Your  turn.


Development Team Member
Posts: 12
Question. In reference to the race. The tHB dropping but SmO2 increase.
Is this a utilization problem? Is the tHB drop from a muscular tightening or from a drop in the cardiovascular system?

Development Team Member
Posts: 12
..or a change in breathing pattern..

Just guessing. All of this is Very new to me and very interesting.

Development Team Member
Posts: 1,501
to really get the full benefit  of  bio marker  feedbacks  like MOXY  from a  race    you have to be there or have a video  so you can have  identic feedback  of    the actual  race  situation combined  with the reaction in the  physiological systems. There  are systems, one  from Spain WIMU  ,which actually is doing just  that live feedback  of picture  and synchronized  MOXY  datas.

Is thetHB drop from a muscular tightening or from a drop in the cardiovascular system?

Here some feedbacks  on  possible  reasons  why we see tHb  drop.

There are  more but I like to keep it  to  what we  easy  can look at .

If we reach  respiratory  limitation based on Dempsey's  idea of a metaboreflex,than we  will see a  possible drop in tHb

Exercise-induced respiratory muscle fatigue: implications for performance

  1. 1.   Lee M. Romer1 and
  2. 2.   Michael I. Polkey2

+ Author Affiliations

  1. 1.    1Centre for Sports Medicine and Human Performance, Brunel University, Uxbridge; and 2Respiratory Muscle Laboratory, Royal Brompton Hospital, and National Heart and Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom
  2. Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: L. M. Romer, Centre for Sports Medicine and Human Performance, Brunel Univ., Uxbridge UB8 3PH, United Kingdom (e-mail:

Next Section


It is commonly held that the respiratory system has ample capacity relative to the demand for maximal O2 and CO2 transport in healthy humans exercising near sea level. However, this situation may not apply during heavy-intensity, sustained exercise where exercise may encroach on the capacity of the respiratory system. Nerve stimulation techniques have provided objective evidence that the diaphragm and abdominal muscles are susceptible to fatigue with heavy, sustained exercise. The fatigue appears to be due to elevated levels of respiratory muscle work combined with an increased competition for blood flow with limb locomotor muscles. When respiratory muscles are prefatigued using voluntary respiratory maneuvers, time to exhaustion during subsequent exercise is decreased. Partially unloading the respiratory muscles during heavy exercise using low-density gas mixtures or mechanical ventilation can prevent exercise-induced diaphragm fatigue and increase exercise time to exhaustion. Collectively, these findings suggest that respiratory muscle fatigue may be involved in limiting exercise tolerance or that other factors, including alterations in the sensation of dyspnea or mechanical load, may be important. The major consequence of respiratory muscle fatigue is an increased sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow to working skeletal muscle through a respiratory muscle metaboreflex, thereby reducing limb blood flow and increasing the severity of exercise-induced locomotor muscle fatigue. An increase in limb locomotor muscle fatigue may play a pivotal role in determining exercise tolerance through a direct effect on muscle force output and a feedback effect on effort perception, causing reduced motor output to the working limb muscles.

 2.  Than we have  the   strongly discussed    reaction  of  reduction in motor units  if  we  create a critical  O2   challenge  to the cardiac system itself.
 Noakes. To  protect the  needed mini9ml pO2 in   vital organs  we  may see a reduction in  motor unit recruitment
We  found this   for us  by using SEMG    and  created  cardiac  overload  or  had  clients  where  we knew  they  had a  cardiac a limitation.
 This leads  to the below  picture.
ecgm pic.jpg 

Now  here a  small problem.
 When we  force a  performance like we  do in assessment  we  often  can not see a  SEMG  drop , as we  rather stop  or have to stop  because we  can NOT maintain the forced  upon us  performance. If we  do a  self  paced assessment  we  see this   easy  as  the   client believes  he still pushes  hard  but in fact the performance  drops   he  simply still has the same feeling.
 There are  some great   discussion on this  that we see VO2  max   higher  values in  self  paced  assessments than in forced  VO2  max protocols. So in a  race  we  have   a  self  paced   speed  as the body  can react accrordingly  and will react. In the  " fight  zone " between  mental  and physiological   situation  we  therefor  can see a  drop in tHb  due to the increase in muscle compression, when the   motor unit recruitment  drops  so we have a  sudden increase in %  of maximal strength which  than  shows up in a  tHb  drop  for  a  very short   moment.  This  is  nicely  observed  in  situation over the   last  400 m  , when  a runner tries  to get a better position  and  has to go  outside in the curve  so  the fight between the inside  and outside runner  will be decided, whether  the CG  will  drop  recruitment pattern in this  hard  fought  situation.

Now this leads  to the next step  we did  when   we   started to love  NIRS/ MOXY.
 If  we get in a  situation, where we have a limitation of O2  supply  to  locomotor  muscles.

 This is the  pyramid.


What    doe this mean.
  There  is  no  additional supply or very limited  O2  to  locomotor  muscles. Now  there is  a last  options  to " survive" We  can  shift  and shuttle  blood   from the upper body  to the lower body  or  from one less important  muscle to a much more important muscle.  To be able  to  do this  we  have  vasoconstriction situations  so we se a thb  drop   together with a SEMG activity reduction, when  this happens.

This is the reason  why  we use  one MOXY on a less  or  little involved  muscle. as it is the first   place  where we see trouble  coming up.

So  you can see there  are different reasons  for a tHb  reaction.
Now  a  drop   most likely indicates a delivery restriction. So the question  than is  how  SmO2  reacts.  Now here are some  fun  simple   games  MOXY users  can do  and we  for sure will show them  earlier than later.


Development Team Member
Posts: 1,501
Got  an  email  asking  for  " proof  " of te idea, that   tHb  or blood  is  shifting in the  body.
 I am not sure, whether the below  article is proof  but  at least it is  an interesting support of the ideas.

 A  smart guy , forgot  his  name as I am getting older    stipulated in the mid 1700 century , that the blood  will go  to where it is needed.
 Not  bad   when you look where we  stand today. ( Smile )

Are the arms and legs in competition for cardiac output?

Secher NH, Volianitis S.


The Copenhagen Muscle Research Center, Department of Anesthesia, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.


Oxygen transport to working skeletal muscles is challenged during whole-body exercise. In general, arm-cranking exercise elicits a maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) corresponding to approximately 70% of the value reached during leg exercise. However, in arm-trained subjects such as rowers, cross-country skiers, and swimmers, the arm VO2max approaches or surpasses the leg value. Despite this similarity between arm and leg VO2max, when arm exercise is added to leg exercise, VO2max is not markedly elevated, which suggests a central or cardiac limitation. In fact, when intense arm exercise is added to leg exercise, leg blood flow at a given work rate is approximately 10% less than during leg exercise alone. Similarly, when intense leg exercise is added to arm exercise, arm blood flow and muscle oxygenation are reduced by approximately 10%. Such reductions in regional blood flow are mainly attributed to peripheral vasoconstriction induced by the arterial baroreflex to support the prevailing blood pressure. This putative mechanism is also demonstrated when the ability to increase cardiac output is compromised; during exercise, the prevailing blood pressure is established primarily by an increase in cardiac output, but if the contribution of the cardiac output is not sufficient to maintain the preset blood pressure, the arterial baroreflex increases peripheral resistance by augmenting sympathetic activity and restricting blood flow to working skeletal muscles.


Development Team Member
Posts: 1,501
One step  further. 
 1. In the race  graph you can see  as reaction , where the runner was pretty much in a  metabolic  sustainable  intensity. So the coach  can go back  and look at lap  times or distance. This  will give a  feedback on the ability   of the speed  the runner can sustain over a  certain amount of time.
In the  interval you can see,  that the   training created over  every  distance  a  delivery   limitation  and therefore    it stimulated  for sure   utilization  and  depending on the  school you went  some  reaction in capillarisation perhaps.
 What you can see  is ,that the  highest blood flow tHb  achieved  at the warm up  was as well the  highest  tHb level +-  achieved in any rest period in the interval. This despite  for sure a very different CO. So this   (  hard  to  say that for sure  after one   interval )  could indicate if it is  always the same reaction a limitation  of  capillarisation and therefor mitochondria density.
 What we see is that the  training created  a  re-oxygenation problem  or " deficit "   towards the end.
 So  all this is not negative  at all.
 It is super positive if this  was the goal of the workout. It is  great  to know  if this was not the goal of the workout as well as you now  know that to stimulate your set  target this workout  does not   achieve  this goal,  but  is   shows  , what the outcome is.  So if we know the goal  than we  can see, whether the idea  we  have  and  program we run really achieves  this goal  or  whether the   workout  creates a very different outcome than  expected  or we  may  have hoped  for.

   Next up  we still look  for the answer on what  at the end of  all but  for  sue not the last 200 m  was the  system   who  pushed  in and above the limit ?

Development Team Member
Posts: 1,501
So  after  some background base  information  back to the actual  workout  and some additional information.

Here  the two  areas  when using just MOXY  we can discuss.

Delivery  from a  blood flow point of  view.

disc  tHb  all intervall.jpg

We  do not know the   real  base line tHb  as I am not sure, whether they  calibrated  the  athlete  at rest. What  we  see is , that the highest blood  flow achieved  in the  " warm up  phase was  about the same level  as we  have in the rest period ( 3  min in between each set.  The HR  ?   means that if  we  have the HR  at this levels  we  can get somewhat a better info, whether this athlete  reach  a  top level of  her  capillary  t density  or not.
 Example . Max  HR  at  warm up  170  and Max HR  at   the rest  3 min period  185  would indicate  what ????  Than  we have a  third  HR  ?  and  this  at  a lower  tHb . What we know is that the  last 200 m  was all out    so   what  does this mean  if  the  HR  may have been the highest  here or perhaps  much lower ?
As you can see HR  in combination  with tHb can give some indication n of  CO  = HR  x SV  and SV is  influenced  by tHb  trend
Arrows.  Look at the tHb  after  each 200 m  run. What  can you see ?

 Now   trend in utilization  or  in   delivery   when looking  at  O2  reaction. Below a Biased  overall view.

disc  bias  all intervall.jpg 

You  can see , that  the trend   during the full 6  sets  was  a less and less ability  to  reoxygenate in the three minute   rest period. You see nicely  that  as  expected  the 500 m  deoxygenated  to the lowest level of all three distances. 200 m  the    smallest  with  exception of the last 200 m all out
But  you can see in the last  set the  5oo m  fell out of the overall dropping trend  and   interesting is , that the " cool down  was  not  re-oxygenating but  actually  created a  relative  strong  deoxygenating  trend????
Again this is not   good or bad  as  we  do not know , what the goal  for stimulating  of this athletes  workout  was. we know the     structure  of the workout  which is based on distance  and time  but we do not know  what this structure   physiological  suppose to achieve.

 Now  what we  can look further is    what  caused  a problem  at the end of  each load.  so let's  take the first  and last  set  to compare  the  loads  as we did  above  and here as a  recap the 500 m  of the first  and last set.

500  first and last.jpg

Interesting is the   different  reaction  in both  set  first and last I at the end  of the load. You can see  that thb  starts  increasing before  SmO2.. 2  options  and the answer would be clear  by looking at the time  when  the  run started  and ended.
 Now  as we look  at just  the picture    I like to explain the two options this   trend could  be created.

1.  The runner  ( in ice hockey or any sport  where  you glide  even you quite working )    slowed  down  before the  500 m  mark  and he or she was coasting the last  section. So  muscle compression  is  easing of  but  O2  is still used in a similar  way. 

2.  Thee  runner  got  hypercapnic,  so  as  he or she  stops  running   muscle compression is gone  and with it   the CO  and CO2  vasodilatation  can take  effect immediately. ( very steep  fats increase in tHb.

But the high CO2  will keep the O2  disscurve  to the right for    some 10 - 15  seconds till respiration  start to  balance  CO2  back  to normocapnic. So  still easy to take  O2  but harder  to load  O2 .

 Interesting is the last  200 m  which  was done different than the  rest. lets  look  first  and last 200 m  which  where very different in intensity. If  you decide  ( plan) to go all out , you will in most cases as you go hard , breathe much harder  with exception you are respiratory trained  and have a specific goal setting in mind.
 Now let's  see what happened  here.
200 m  first and last.jpg 

You  explain  for your self.
Now  last but not least. :
 If  in this  workout the respiratory  system  was most overloaded , that we will see that the next day  either in a  HRV  and RRA  assessment  or  indirectly in a  slow    recovery run  at the start.

 Respiration is a  part of the delivery  and exhaust  system.
 If it is  overloaded it will take  a  while to  react  properly  even if you go very  slow. So you will see a  delivery problem at the start of a  slow run not just as  always the fist 1  +-  min but over a  much longer time  if it  can be recovered  for the slow intensity.   now lets  look this   part long run the  next workout  after this interval.

long  run baised  all.jpg 

You can see a  pretty long  delivery  limitation at the start and a long long  time  before    nice  and high O2Hb  situation.  I  do not know  HR  nor speed  not  anything just that it was a long run  . So in this case the runner must  have felt not great  at the  start and pretty good  at the end.
 The question  is : Is that a recovery  workout  or  was it an additional load  to an already overloaded respiratory  system   What was the goal  of the run ?  And  do we see at the start  whether it  is a  respiratory  battle ?

 Lets  go  closer to the start section  where we  have the delivery problem.

long  run smo2  thb  start.jpg 
There  was  a  section, where the runner  reduced  pace  most likely  based on feeling  rather than planned  and look what we see  at the  1200  time  marker  when  he or she reduced  pace. ?????  Again, if  we  have  HR  we  have  some more feedback her or GPS info.  Now  the next time  we  have a  reduction in speed or stop is  always  at the end  . At the end  the delivery looked  great  so  lets  se, whether  we  have   a THb  and SmO2  reaction which has to be  at the same time if  respiration  is  back to normo capnia
long  run  end.jpg 
??? what  do you think ????


Development Team Member
Posts: 279
SmO2 reaction not that great I would think but at the same time the level is already quite high in the 90s. You can see good CO (due to vasolidation) reaction.

Development Team Member
Posts: 1,501
Ruud    yes  same  from my point of  view. Greta  vasodilatation  as  CO  great  and SmO2  is  basically fully up  and  can not  go higher  so 90  in  some   cases   close to 95 %  is the highest  we ever  can see in over 10'000 assessments  so pretty confident  that  not  many ever  will find higher values  with  NIRS than  that. Remember there is a limitation in any  equipment  (

 What  we  see is tHb  and SmO2  react  at the same time  so it is a  " mechanical " reason  muscle  compression is gone   or  at least    clearly  reduced.
 The second  info wee  get out  from this athlete  which is great  for  5/1/5  info is the ability how high  she  can go in SmO2. What  could have been  as additional  info  as a great  value  is the 1 - 3 min calibration" again  to see how   tHb  and as such  an indirect feedback on capillarisation  would have been .
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